September Special

Glorious September: 1965 War

Skirmishes Along Cease Fire Line (CFL)

■ Indian war of aggression in Kashmir begun by landing her forces on October 27, 1947.

■ Kashmir War 1947-48.

■ Despite United Nations Security Council Resolutions, no plebiscite held in Kashmir due to India.

■ Skirmishes along CFL continued intermittently.

■ Hostilities, skirmishes and war in Kashmir never prompted to aggression across International Borders

1st September 1965

India Prepares for War

India had not digested the creation of Pakistan and was building up war hysteria since April 1965. India moved its troops closer to Pakistani border.

■ Mr. Jay Prakash Narayan, Indian leader severely criticized Shastri's government about the way the Defense of India rules were being enforced. Shastri's government ordered to harass and victimize any Pakistani going to India. 7 Pakistanis were arrested in Kanpur on flimsy grounds who were on a visit to their relatives with valid documents.

■ While apprising the Indian Parliament on the latest situation in Occupied Kashmir, Indian Defence Minister Y.B. Chavan admitted that operation against Mujahideen by the Indian Army was proving very difficult.

Pakistani Account

■ Khawaja Shahabuddin, Central Information Minister warned India that if she continued her aggressive actions across CFL in Kashmir, Pakistani forces would be forced to retaliate.

■ At 5:19 p.m. four Indian Vampire aircraft flown from Pathankot entered Pakistan and attacked our ground troops. The vigilant Air Defenders picked the violating Indian aircraft. To their utmost surprise, the aircraft were welcomed by two F-86 Sabres flown by the brilliant Squadron Leader Sarfraz Rafiqui and Flight Lieutenant Imtiaz Bhatti. All four Indian aircraft were shot down over Chamb, killing pilots Bharadwaj, Bhagwadar and Joshi while Pathak ejected and was made POW.     

■ This thrilling encounter was personally witnessed by Air Marshal Nour Khan, C-in-C of PAF from an L-19 aircraft. To save on further humiliation meted out by PAF pilots, Indian Air Force withdrew all its 130 Vampiresand 50  Ouragons from the frontline.

■ Indians tried to build up pressure at Rajauri, Mandal, Sonamarg, Uri Sectors and faced humiliation by Azad troops who stubbornly resisted the enemy pressure and took heavy toll of Indians. Whole day the Indian helicopters remained busy in shifting the casualties.

2nd September 1965

Indian PM L. B. Shastri threatens Pakistan

■ Indian COAS General J.N. Chowdhry visited Occupied Kashmir and held consultations regarding border situation with Governor Sardar Karan Singh, Premier Mr. GM Sadiq and other high ranking military officers.

■  Shastri admits that 4 Indian planes were shot down by Pakistani forces the previous day.


Pakistani Account

■ President Ayub Khan while addressing the nation said, "Indian policy towards Pakistan and Kashmir had been set on a collision course from the very beginning. The present conflict in Kashmir is the inevitable outcome of that policy. India is warned to be responsible alone for the consequences that were bound to follow".

■ "Aggression will not go unchallenged", President Ayub Khan.

■ "Pakistan will fulfill pledge to Kashmiris", President Ayub Khan.

■ "Indian Army has stepped into its grave", Sardar Abdul Qayyum Khan.

■ Foreign observers regret use of air force by India. ■ GHQ issued warning orders to all formations to occupy concentration areas by morning of 2nd September in case India escalated.


Force Comparison

■ The Mujahids wiped out an entire platoon of Indian Army near Sonamarg and they continue attacking Indian positions, convoys and other installations. The Azad Kashmir Forces supported by Pakistan Army are continuing to press forward in the Chamb area. Their advance eastward remains unchecked. 15 Tanks and 150 POWs captured in Chamb area.

6th September 1965

■ India wages war across International Borders without declaration.

■ Violation of International Law.

■ War of Aggression against Pakistan by India.

"Full scale war with Pakistan"; announced in Congress meeting

PM L. B. Shastri

"We are at war. Our brave soldiers have gone forward to repel the enemy attack. The Armed Forces of Pakistan will prove their mettle. Armed with an invincible spirit and determination which has never faltered, they will give a crushing blow to the enemy".

Field Marshal Ayub Khan

■ British Prime Minister Harold Wilson noted Indian aggression for their invasion in West Pakistan and appealed India to halt fighting.



■ India Crosses International Border: At 0400 hours Indian forces attacked Lahore. Pakistani Forces repulsed 3 pronged Indian invasion at Lahore, Sialkot from Jassar enclave and Kasur from Ferozpur.

■ Both at Wagah and Bedian front the Indian attacks were repulsed with heavy casualities. A number of Indian soldiers were made POW. Indian tanks, guns and other war equipment were also destroyed at Lahore front.

■ At Jassar, after fierce fighting, Indian troops were thrown back, recaptured southern river Ravi enclave which was held by Indian army in the morning.

Captured area was littered with knocked out tanks, vehicles, weapons and Indian soldiers' dead bodies. 200 Indian soldiers' dead bodies were physically counted, while actual count was reported to be around 800.

■ At Chamb, India suffered crushing defeat with her war equipment lying scattered for miles. 35 POWs and several tanks captured alongwith six 25 pounder field guns.

■ Kashmiri Mujahadeen destroyed road and two bridges near Srinagar besides disrupting Rajauri-Poonch line.

■ Naval Forces were ordered to occupy their pre-assigned war stations as they received information at 0630 hours about Indian attack at Lahore front.

■ PAF's airstrikes on the Pathankot Air Base had been the most successful air raid of contemporary history destroying 13 aircaft. Overall PAF annihilated 22 Indian jets including C-119sMysteres, GNATS and MiG-21s. One Mystere was shot down by air-to-air missile at Rahwali near Gujranwala.

National Morale

■ The live hearted people of Lahore watched the aerial combat between PAF and IAF with great enthusiasm. Thousands set off on the road towards the border in defence of Lahore side by side their soldiers. Many rushed towards the military hospitals for blood donation. Disregarding Indian air threat, nation flocked to cheer soldiers rushing to the borders.

7th September 1965

India threatened to extend war to East Wing


■ "Indian offensive halted in Lahore, Sulemanki, Ferozpur sectors'; Indian Official Spokesperson.

■ India suffers heavy blow on all fronts. 31 aircraft destroyed today bringing the total to an embarrassing 53 and several rendered unserviceable.

■ President Ayub Khan applauds PAF for its brilliant performance.

■ "Only plebiscite in Kashmir can bring lasting peace'President Ayub Khan.

■ "Kashmiris will frustrate Indian designs'Spokesperson Revolutionary Counsel.

■ "Report for Duty", Orders General Musa C-in-C to all newly retired officers and soldiers.

■ "Victory will be ours", Malik Amir Muhammad, Governor West Pakistan.

■ "Pakistan will give befitting reply if India shows aggression in East Pakistan",

Abdul Monem Khan Governor East Pakistan.

■ "Justify Nation's Trust", Naval Chief Admiral A.R. Khan's Order of the Day to Pakistan Navy.

■ PNS Babur, Khaibar, Badr, Jahangir, Alamgir, Shahjahan and Tipu Sultan tasked to be in position 293 degrees, 120 miles from Dwarka Light House by 6 p.m. on September 7.

■ Major General Akhter Husain Malik conferred Hilal-e-Jurat for his extraordinary gallant actions in defence of Pakistan in Jaurian sector.

■ Fulfill pledge to Kashmiris, Ayub Khan asks U Thant, UN Secretary General.

■ "Sanctity of Holy places to be maintained", Pakistan's assurance to Sikh community.

■ China warns India of consequences.

■ Indonesia supports Pakistan's stance.

3rd September  1965

Indian PM L.B. Shastri prepares his nation for hard days ahead, fearing more air raids

■ Fierce fighting in Chamb sector in last two days where over 500 Indian soldiers,15 tanks and other equipment were captured by Pakistan Army.

■ C-in-C General M. Musa visited wounded Indian soldiers at a field hospital.

■ Lt Col Naseerullah Babar (Later Major General) captured 30 Indian soldiers singlehandedly in Bhimber sector when he mistakenly landed his helicopter at an Indian position still not cleared by Pakistani troops. With exceptional presence of mind and resolute confidence he made Indian soldiers believe that they had been surrounded by a large number of troops when he only had a single pistol with him.

■ Three out of six Indian aircraft shot down. One aircraft flown by Squadron Leader Brij Pal Singh (later Air Marshal) made to force land at Pasrur airfield by Flight Lieutenant Hakimullah (later Chief of Air Staff)and Flying Officer Abbas Mirza and made POW, while the remaining two aircraft flew away in damaged condition.

4th September 1965

"India wants showdown this time. Wants to settle Kashmir issue with Pakistan once for all." Indira Gandhi, Indian Foreign Minister

■ "India is aggressor in Kashmir", Chinese Foreign Minister Marshal Chen Yi backs action by Pakistan.

■ INDIA IS THE AGGRESSOR — Tension caused by India alone. Pakistani troops were forced to hit back in self defence after Indian troops poured across the Ceasefire Line and pushed deep into the Pakistan controlled area': People's Daily (official newspaper of China)

■ GHQ directs formations to take necessary defensive measures against India. C-in-C General Musa visited frontline.

■ UN Chief Military Observer (UNMOGIP) Lt Gen Nimmo belies Indian claims, "Freedom fighters had ambushed an Indian military convoy at Sonamarg near Srinagar and inflicted heavy casualties. Guerilla actions all over the Indian occupied Kashmir inflicting heavy casualties".

■ Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Afzal Rahman Khan ordered all naval units of the Navy to take up defensive positions off the coast. Pakistan Navy deployed its first long-range submarine PNS Ghazi for gathering intelligence and diverting threats posed by the aircraft carriers INS Vikrant, INS Mysore and INS Dehli.

■ Jaurian Sector: A platoon of FF Regiment commanded by Second Lieutenant Shabbir Sharif charged strongly held enemy position at Troti Feature. The attack met stiff resistance resulting in several casualties including 2nd Lt Shabbir Sharif. Notwithstanding reverses, 2nd Lt Shabbir Sharif took his troops out of the enemy fire. He reorganized his troops and charged again and retrieved bodies of six martyred and fifteen injured soldiers. He charged third time and drove back an Indian artillery gun with its gun-tower truck. For his outstanding leadership, chivalry and tactical brilliance, he was awarded Sitara-e-Jurat.

 IAF attempt to violate Pakistani airspace foiled. 40 IAF planes chased off.

■ Liberation Front ambushed Indian military convoy in Rajauri sector killing 38 Indian soldiers while capturing large quantity of ammunition and making several soldiers POW.

8th September 1965

Desperate Indian Air Force targeting non-military installations

Wazirabad, Chiniot and Sargodha HOSPITAL and CIVIL COURTS attacked

■ India dropped para-troopers over Rawalpindi, Lahore, Shandara, Wazirabad, Jhelum, Sukkur, Badin and outskirts of Karachi.

■ Indian paratroopers and POWs were found to be unwilling to fight because of lack of conviction in the war.

■ Iran: "The people of Iran are deeply concerned otter Indian aggression against the homeland of their Pakistani brothers and are determined not to limit their reaction to mere expression of sentiment'.

Iranian Government Official announcement, (Radio Tehran)

■ Turkey"If India did not immediately end its attacks against Pakistan then Turkey should break off diplomatic and economic relations with India and furnish effective support to our great ally Pakistan".

Turkish Senators Sitki Ulay and Mucip Atagi

■ UKSuspends military shipment to India.


■ Inflicting heavy losses Pakistan Army beats back enemy attack at Lahore, Sialkot and desert region.

■ 21 Indian tanks knocked out in Sialkot. Artillery guns and a number of Indian soldiers captured.

■ Public in thousands lined up to cheer Pakistani soldiers going to battlefield.

■ Mujahids inflict heavy losses to Indian Army. 3 miles road between Srinagar and Kargil destroyed.

■ Pakistan Navy takes the battle to Indian shores. Indian vital naval base and radar station at Dwarka burnt to ashes in a span of 12 hours long operation.

■ PAF bombers carried out accurate air attacks on IAF bases at Halwara near Ludhiana and Jodhpur. So far 70 Indian Air Force planes totaling 1/5th of IAF destroyed in last 36 hours.

5th September 1965



PM L.B. Shastri

■ President Ayub Khan highly appreciated the heroic performance of Army units operating in Jaurian.

■ General Musa Khan congratulated his men on Jaurian Victory. He said,

"You have got your teeth in him. Bite deeper and deeper till you destroy him".

■ Khwaja Shahabuddin, The Information Minister said, "Let me assure Shastri that he is deluding himself and his people if he thinks that anyone in Pakistan will hesitate to make supreme sacrifice in meeting the challenge".

■ After a whole night of fierce fighting the battle was drawn in the favour of 12 Division under Major General Akhtar Hussain Malik which captured Jaurian. It was one of the India's second vital strongholds that fell to Azad Forces and Pakistan Army. Indian Army was pushed back 18 miles inside the Ceasefire Line and own troops were three miles away from Akhnoor.

■ The Kashmiri freedom fighters engaged the Indian Army in Occupied Kashmir at a number of places and killed about 50 soldiers while many were injured.

■ SUBMARINE GHAZI was in position by morning to attack cruiser Mysore and her escorts which were proceeding up the west coast of India towards Bombay.

■ PAF remained alert and patrolled Bhimber Sector.


9th September 1965

India Panicks!

Serious rift between Indian PM L.B. Shastri and President Radhakrishnan over PM's act of violence against Pakistan

■ India orders arrest of 500 Pakistanis visiting their relatives on legal documents.

■ U.S. papers report Indian failure on Lahore sector due to stiff Pakistani resistance.

■ India has banned Met Office to publish weather forecast as it might favor PAF.

International Scenario

■ "Chinese government sternly condemns India for her criminal aggression and expresses firm support for Pakistan", Chinese PM Zhou Enlai.

■ "Prayer of Indonesian people for Pakistan fighting fiercely to maintain sovereignty and freedom", President Sukarno.

■ "Painful development concerns Pakistan and Turkey who are CENTO allies. Unbreakable bonds of friendship and brotherhood exist between two nations", PM Suat Hayri Urguplu.

■ "Both sides are making many claims but when a personal chance occurs to check, Pakistanis are accurate", Peter Preston, Editor The Guardian.

■ Indian Defence Minister Y B. Chavan is trying to outdo Goebbels in propaganda war. Many politicians are disappointed by Chavan's account of military operationsClare Hollingworth (The Guardian).

■ "Pakistanis have only 300 jet fighters of which according to Dehli Radio the gallant Indian Air Force has already shot down 472", Osbert Lancaster, (Daily Express).


■ Pakistan Army pushed Indian troops beyond international boundary on all the three fronts with a decisive blow at Wagah and Kasur. It has tactical gains to its credit. Fighting now goes into enemy's territory.

■ On Sialkot and Gadro front all enemy attacks successfully beaten back inflicting heavy casualities on the Indians. Lt Kaleem embraced Shahadat in a hand to hand fight defending Jassar Bridge.

■ Mujahids ambushed Indian engineers bridge and road repair party northwest of Sonamarg.

■ Submarine Ghazi dominated the Bombay Naval base and did not allow Indian Navy to react at Dwarka.

■ PAF maintained full control of the air; Indian air bases at Pathankot and Jodhpur completely damaged as per AM Nur Khan, 28 Indian planes were destroyed in air combats, two shot down by AA guns, 26 destroyed in the air raids on Indian airfield and another 15 including 11 Canberras destroyed in the air raids and attacks on Kalaikunda airbase some 60 miles near the port town of Calcutta.

■ Song: "Mery Dhol Sipahiya Teenu Rab diyan rakhan" written by Sufi Tabassum, sung by Noor Jahan was broadcasted on this day.

10th September 1965

"Indian troops suffered considerable loss of armour in their thrust towards Sialkot from Jammu. In Kasur sector they have been forced to withdraw in the face of heavy counter attack by Pakistani forces."

Indian Defence Minister Y.B. Chavan.

■ Indian government divided into two groups, one led by President Radha krishnan favoring an early end to war and cooperation with UN Secretary General U Thant and the other led by PM Shastri opposing peaceful settlements.

■ Indian Navy is bitter about failure of IAF to prevent annihilation of the Naval and air bases in Dwarka and Jamnagar region by PAF and Pakistan Navy.

■ The danger of mass killing of Muslims in India is reported to be rising with the advance of Pakistan Army towards Ferozpur.

■ Panicked decision of Indian government to impose ban on listening Radio Pakistan and seizing of bank accounts of all Pakistani nationals, firms and companies in India.

Pakistani Account

■ "Pakistanis are steeled in their resolve not only to throw the intruder from their soil but to give a crushing blow to Indian aggression", FM Ayub Khan.

■ "Give crushing blow to enemy and those who are trying to undo Pakistan shall never succeed - Pakistan shall live forever", Miss Fatima Jinnah.

■ King Faisal reiterated Saudi Arabia's full support for Pakistan against Indian aggression over Kashmir conflict.


■ Pakistan Army shot down two Indian fighter planes in Lahore sector with small arms fire.

■ Seven more Indian Centurion tanks destroyed in Sialkot sector raising the total number to 42 in this sector.

■ The Mujahideen raided heavily fortified Indian position at Maralabad in Dras sector and gave considerable damage to Indian army.

■ Pakistan Navy seized Indian Naval liberty of action in the Arabian Sea.

■ PAF fighters intercepted and shot down an Indian jet over Lahore which had come to give support to retreating Indian Army.

■ East Wing Lalmonirhat and Thakurgaon in Rangpur and Dinajpur Dacca districts respectively were subjected to heavy Indian bombing and strafing by IAF planes.

National Morale

■ 4 lac tribesmen declared to go to the front to fight Indian aggression.

■ 20,000 ex servicemen of Nowshera District offered their services.

■ 35 doctors from Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Center left Karachi for operational areas.

■ Noor Jahan sang the evergreen song, "Ay Puttar Hattan te nai wekday"


11th September 1965

International Media Account

"India is looking for ways to end war due to heavy losses and unexpected results". There are some indications that PM Shastri's government is looking for a way to end the war on a basis that could be explained to an aroused nation."

■ Despite censorship the newspapers reported, "Initial momentum of the Indian attacks in Pakistan has begun to falter; Pakistanis regrouped and concentrating, are increasing the strength of their counter attacks".

■ The second factor operating to the disadvantage of the Indian army is that there are fairly widespread misgivings among the senior officers about the justification let alone the wisdom of going to war over Kashmir.

Quaid's Anniversary

■ Despite intense war the life in Pakistan flowed smooth and unruffled. Quaid's 17th death anniversary was observed in the usual manner.


■ 4th Indian Mountain Division, 2nd Independent Armoured Brigade Group and an additional Tank Regiment had stood in Bhikiwind-Khem Karan area, poised for a frontal attack on Kasur. After fierce fighting Pakistan captured Khem Karan incurring heavy losses to Indian army in Kasur sector. Pakistani Forces undertook limited offensive to prevent enemy build-up towards Lahore. In a swift, short spurt, Pakistani troops captured Khem Karan. Indian command desperately ordered to push back Pakistani troops at any cost but failed.

■ Lahore Sector: Enemy launched as many as eight major attacks on Barki positions before the final attack on the night of 11-12 September. In the final attack, three enemy tanks started shooting Major Aziz Bhatti's position. Undeterred, Major Bhatti kept directing fire on the enemy. Two enemy tanks were shot. In the meantime, one of the shell directly hit him and he embraced Shahadat. However, none of these attacks could make any headway. Major Aziz Bhatti's troops held the ground firmly following his inspiring leadership.

■ Major Raja Aziz Bhatti was awarded Nishan-e-Haider for his action beyond the call of duty.

■ In Sialkot Sector enemy made a desperate bid to retrieve ground with heavy tank units. In the ensuing battle 36 Indian tanks were knocked down.

■ In Chamb-Akhnoor Sector Pakistani Forces captured another post north of Deva and consolidated their positions.

■ In Sindh-Rajasthan Sector Pakistani troops further advanced towards north and captured posts in the Gadro area.

■ Pakistan Navy ships maintained their supremacy at Arabian Sea after Operation Dwarka.

■ PAF destroyed entire fleet of MiG aircraft at Halwara. PAF also destroyed two Indian fighter-bombers (Hunter and Vampire) at Bagh Dogra Indian Air Force base in West Bengal.

12th September 1965

"Security Council should guarantee the ceasefire line after all Pakistani troops are removed from Kashmir." Indian President

This move seen too clever by Independent Observers

■ Lieutenant Colonel Anant Singh, 7 officers and 350 soldiers of 4th Sikh Regiment surrendered in Khem Karan sector.

■ Nepal asked India not to deploy 50,000 Gurkha soldiers serving with Indian Army in the war against Pakistan.

■ His country would appreciate any advice by Turkey on how to halt the fighting and find a solution to Kashmir dispute around a conference table.

Mr. Lal Mehta, Indian Ambassador to Ankara

International Account

■ The victory now seems within Pakistan's grasp. Douglas Brown, The Sunday Telegraph

■ Indians have so far failed to make any impact on Pakistani positions in their attempt to push forward. Pakistan's smaller army but well armored and in high state of readiness is now fighting on Indian soil in two sectors of the 50 mile Lahore front. Reuters and BBC

■ PAF superior to IAF. UN Military Observer


■ Lahore Sector: India made attempts to advance to Harike-Rurki road again but their attempt was foiled with heavy losses.

■ Sialkot Sector: Heaviest ever tank attack launched by India was repulsed and many posts were taken and POWs captured. 45 tanks and scores of heavy vehicles were destroyed taking the total tanks destroyed to 187.

■ Pakistani Forces captured a post well inside the Indian territory in the Ramgarh-Jaisalmir axis and in Chamb sector.

■ Freedom fighters killed one Lt Col, a JCO and three soldiers of the Indian Army when an encounter took place between them in the southwest of Jammu.

■ PAF continued to lend vigorous support to ground forces in various sectors. Destroyed 28 tanks and 123 heavy vehicles.

National Morale

■ Thousands of citizens of Dacca took out a procession to express their anger against Indian aggression. On the other hand, scores of valiant tribesmen joined the battlefield.

■ Ex servicemen from number of friendly countries made touching appeals to allow them to join Pakistan Army to fight against Indian aggression.

■ Jameel-ud-Din Aali wrote "Ay Watan k Sajeelay Jawano" which was sung by Noor Jahan.

13th September 1965

East Punjab Home Minister Darbara Singh appealed to the Indian public to remain calm who are deeply panicked over Pakistani successes

■ Indian Government imposed strict reporting censorship and disallowed pressmen to visit battle areas.

■ U.S. and UK increase diplomatic pressure on Turkey and Iran to keep them from supporting Pakistan in war with India.

■ India seeks fighter jets from U.S. in the wake of heavy aircraft losses.

■ UK press reports that placing of more aircraft at tactical airfields of Pathankot, Halwara and Adampur and throwing in dozens of small scale ineffective air raids was IAF's blunder which resulted in heavy IAF losses.

■ UK newspaper 'Spectator' declares Indian war design as perfidious and ill-planned. International Scenario

■ Russia blamed America for Indo-Pakistan war.

■ Raza Shah Pehlvi, Shah of Iran announced solidarity with Pakistan and cancelled 25th year of rule celebrations besides announcing donation.

■ Indonesian Government condemns Indian aggression. Youth demands exclusion of India from next Afro-Asian conference, also set ablaze Air India office in Jakarta. Millions of Muslims took out anti-India rally.

Pakistan's Perspective

■ Pakistan's Ambassador to USA Ghulam Ahmed stated in media that"Pakistan is fully determined to crush Indian aggression".


■ Army: Pakistani troops push back Indian advance and capture Munabao railway station.

■ In the eight days of battle, India has lost half of its total armoured strength, tank losses reached to 209 and aircraft losses to 140.

■ Pakistan Army dislodged several Indian Army attempts to advance on Khem Karan-Kasur and Jammu-Sialkot sector with heavy losses to Indian Army.

■ Mujahideen raided an Indian military base near Srinagar.

■ Navy: Submarine PNS Ghazi returned to Karachi Port for routine maintenance and necessary operational briefing.

■ PAF: Six Indian transport planes destroyed by PAF parked at Jammu airfield. One IAF GNAT shot down by PAF in Sialkot sector.

National Morale

■ Strong anti-India demonstrations held in East Pakistan.

■ Hindu and Christian communities of Pakistan condemn Indian aggression.

■ Govt of West Pakistan donates Rs. 2,000,000 to C-in-C's Shaheed Welfare Fund.

■ Large number of people turn up to donate blood for war victims.


14th September 1965

The diary of Indian Maj Gen Niranjan Prasad found on Lahore front makes "sensational disclosures"

■ It revealed the existence of deep conflicts and tensions in the Indian Army, rifts among the Indian Air Chief, General Choudhry, his senior associates and bitter resentment over confused meddling by politicians. The diary bemoans the absence of any sense of purpose or direction in the orders given to Indian Army and regrets that Indian Armed Forces were being used as a pawn in the game of power politics.

■ U.S. President Johnson was trying to save Shastri Government from humiliation over Kashmir. He believed "extremism or some sort of anarchy" may overtake India "IF IT WERE TO FALL".

■ New Delhi diplomatic sources report deepening of crisis in Indian Government following Indian Army's poor performance against Pakistan. It says, "Every Indian knows that the government has led the country on the path of disaster".

■ Indian Air Force bombed and martyred 60 civilians in Peshawar and Kohat besides destroying mosques and hospitals.


 Lahore Sector: Pakistani forces repulsed fresh enemy attempt in Maqboolpur. The enemy left behind 150 bodies and at least twice as many wounded. 5 more tanks smashed; another Indian Army officer made POW.

■ Gadro Sector: Forces captured yet another post. An officer with 35 soldiers made POW.

■ Sialkot-Jammu Sector: Situation remained under control. Indian Forces'

concentration was severely neutralized by heavy artillery fire and PAF.

■ IAF lost 11 aircraft during last 24 hours. 3 were shot down by Pakistan ground forces while rest were bagged by PAF raising total IAF losses to 80.

National Morale

■ President Ayub Khan visited CMH to see wounded from the war front.

■ NA Deputy Speaker donates 25 % of his salary.

■ Arab students of Peshawar University offered to fight on the frontline.

■ People from all walks of life including 9 judges of West Pakistan High Court stationed in Lahore offered to donate blood for courageous Armed Forces.

■ Indian Attack Condemned: Dacca students take out big processions.

International Reports

■ The Observer, London: "Pakistan's success in the air means that she has been able to redeploy her relatively small army professionally among the best in Asia with impunity. Courage displayed by the PAF pilots is reminiscent of the bravery of the few young and dedicated pilots who saved this country from Nazi invaders in the critical battle of Britain during the last war." Patrick Seale.

■ The Guardian defense correspondent Clare Hollingworth reported from Jaurian near J&K, "Indians are short of Radar and by day Pakistani F-104 supersonic fighters can and do make reconnaissance flights with little fear of being hit".

Foreign Support

■ Medicines from students of Indonesia received.

■ Demonstrations in Turkey against Indian aggression

15th 1965 September

Stubborn Indian PM Shastri turned down ceasefire offer byUN Secretary General U Thant

■ Personal diary of General Niranjan Prasad revealed that India had started preparing for war in May 1965.

■ Indian Sikh community in- Birmingham UK contributed to Pakistan war fund stating that Pakistan's position is justified and moral.

■ Patrick Seale reported in London Observer that India doesn't want Great Powers to intervene in the hope to preserve status quo of her occupation of Kashmir.

■ ABC correspondent Roy Meloni confirmed that Indians are bombing civilian targets inside Pakistan.

■ Afghan Government shows deep concern over Indian bombings in Peshawar and Kohat. Pakistani Account

■ President Ayub Khan reiterated his resolve to defend every inch of territory.


■ Pakistan Army repulsed another enemy attack in Sialkot sector causing heavy losses to Indian Army. Indian 1 Corps planned to capture three pivotal positions at Badian, Chawinda and Zafarwal. After meeting tough resistance, India was forced to change plan only to fail again. Pakistani Wajahat Task Force held areas between Chawinda and eastern boundary. 22 Cavalry ex 15 Division contacted enemy at 1100 hours and knocked down three enemy tanks in half-hour long fire fight. After Chawinda, Lt Gen Harbakhsh Singh was silent on how to regroup and advance on these fronts.

■ At Pasrur, Hasri Nala (Indian) 16 Cavalry lost four tanks when came under accurate artillery and armour fire. Indians were forced to disengage and redeploy east of Hasri Nala where eight PAF Sabres strafed Indian positions.

■ Pakistan Army captured an Indian post in Gadro sector. Fleeing Indians left behind all their weapons and equipment.

■ Mujahideen killed 21 and injured many more Indian soldiers in Rajauri area.

■ Navy Submarine PNS Ghazi was declared 'ready' to return to sea after maintenance.

■ PAF continued heavy pounding on important targets at Srinagar, Adampur, Jodhpur, Halwara and Pathankot. PAF shot down an Indian Canberra bomber, destroyed 22 tanks and 51 vehicles in Sialkot-Jammu, Wagah-Attari and Gadro sectors.

National Morale

■ Rawalpindi: Women offered their services for looking after the war wounded in hospitals.

■ Pakistani community in Kuwait gave monetary donations to Pakistan embassy. Many ex-soldiers offered their services for Pakistan Army.

16th September 1965

"Plan to massacre Muslims in held Kashmir"

■ Indonesian news agency 'Antara' exposed Indian Defence Minister Y.B. Chavan's plan.

■ Indian body count touches 6,889 since 6th September. Losses in tanks, aircraft and armoured vehicles also increased. Most battlefields are littered with rotting Indian soldiers' corpses.

■ Once again Indian Air Force bombed civilian population in Sargodha and Peshawar causing loss of 30 innocent lives including three kids and five women.

■ "Secretary General U Thant is biased towards India. He is no longer independent and has virtually become prisoner to Indian officials at UN Secretariat", Pakistan's correspondent to UN, H.K Burki.

International Scenario

■ China, Indonesia, Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and New Zealand showed strong solidarity with Pakistan and denounced Indian aggression.


■ Sialkot-Jammu Sector: Indian troops launched strong attack from two directions. The attack was supported by armour and artillery which was halted by Pakistan Army with the support of PAF. Indian, Army suffered heavy losses including 36 tanks.

■ Wagah-Attari and Khem Karan Sector: Indian advance was repulsed by pushing them back 12 miles, seizing 6 miles of, Indian territory. PAF and artillery caused heavy damage to Indian forces.

■ Gadro Sector: Pakistani troops continued offensive well inside Indian territory.

■ Mujahideen took full control of Rajauri town an ambushed Indian military convoys.

■ Pakistan Navy fleet continued to patrol the Arabian Sea whereas SM Ghazi returned to hunt Indian Navy vessels off Indian coast and denied freedom of action to Indian Navy.

■ PAF Sabres shot down two IAF Hunters over Beas River.

■ PAF planes kept offensive momentum and destroyed twenty Indian tanks, military vehicles and gun in Sialkot-Jammu, Wagah-Attari, Khem Karan and Gadro sectors.

National Morale

■ Dawood Group of Industries, Burewala Textile Mills, National Shipping Lines, Hyderabad Municipal Corporation, WAPDA, Habib Bank, Muslim Commercial Bank, Agriculture Development Bank, West Pakistan Cooperative Board, Ever new Film Studios, Colony Textile Mills and Rawalpindi Municipal Corporation made heavy donations to Defence Fund. The employees of these organizations also provided gift-packs to the soldiers and made blood donations.

■ Pakistani Tennis star Khawaja Saeed Hai vigorously pursued donation 

17th September 1965

IAF planes targeted Pakistani civilian train at Lahore-Narowal section near Shah Sultan, killing 20 passengers while injuring 48

Indian Foreign Office humiliated Muslim envoys of Turkey, Iran and UAE as they were called to hear a warning against their governments adopting a "partisan attitude" in Indo-Pak war.


■ Khem Karan sector: Pakistani Forces' accurate artillery shelling disorganized two Indian heavy concentrations for attack which resulted in destruction of 4 enemy tanks.

■ Sialkot Sector: Pakistan Army repulsed two-pronged enemy attack and inflicted heavy causalities on the enemy. The Indian Army lost 51 tanks and 14 guns in the fierce battle. So far Pakistan has destroyed 442 Indian tanks and captured another 17 in perfect working order.

■ Chamb Sector: Pakistani 4 Corps Artillery heavily bombarded Indian Forces at Butur Dograndi. Lt Gen BM Kaul stated, "One Armour Regiment which should have come to their rescue was halted by enemy firing enroute. On the other hand Indian Poona Horse and 8 Gharwal Rifles could not reach Butur Dograndi on account of close range enemy anti-tank fire". In the evening Indian Commander was left with no choice but to order 8 Garhwal to withdraw.

■ 25 Cavalry caused heavy damage to Indian Forces. Besides destroying 5 tanks, Captain Gurdial Singh ex Poona Horse, 2 soldiers ex 8 Garhwal Rifles were made POW. One Centurion tank brought in running condition by NCO ex 25 Cavalry. By sunset Indian neither 1st Armour Brigade nor 43 Lorried Brigade were capable of mounting even a limited attack anymore.

■ Mujahideen action in the North of Chhamb-Jaurian sector. Indians sitting in three layer concrete trenches were targeted by AK Forces and forced them to surrender.

■ PAF planes also bombed enemy concentrations in the Samba-Jammu sector at night as well as IAF bases at Halwara and Adampur. Diplomatic Front

■ President Ayub in response to UN Secretary General U. Thant's proposal, stated that Pakistan would agree to a ceasefire only if accompanied by, "effective machinery and procedure that would lead to a final settlement of Kashmir dispute."

■ General Musa paid visit to frontline troops and found them in high state of morale.

 International Support

■ King Faisal's brother and governor of Mecca, Amir Mishaal volunteered himself to fight for Pakistan.

■ Indonesian citizens in Arab countries asked Arab League to support Pakistan.

Foreign Media Reports

■ The British Press continues to denounce Indian aggression against Pakistan.

■ Evening Star of London editorial stated, "There can be little doubt this time that the responsibility for the latest outbreak of fighting in Asia lies with India".

■ Le Monde, an Independent newspaper said, "The Indo-Pakistan conflict, has in the first place brought to light India's extraordinary diplomatic isolation".

■ The Time Weekly: In the air, it was much the same story, Indian quantity and Pakistani quality.

11 Days' Battle Summary

■ Pakistan army controlled approximately 500 square miles of Indian territory in various sectors which includes 200 square miles in Akhnoor, 200 square miles in Khem Karan and 80 square miles in Rajasthan sector.

■ POWs: 20 officers, 19 JCOs and 530 other ranks.

■ PAF destroyed 41 enemy tanks, heavy guns and other vehicles.

18th September 1965

India is paying heavily for her aggression against Pakistan. So far 453 tanks destroyed, 18 captured, 106 aircraft destroyed

■ UN Secretary General U Thant reported on military situation to the Security Council, The ceasefire line has been crossed by Indian forces at Kargil, Tithwal, Uri, Poonch upto Haji Pir Pass. Indians crossed Jammu border in force towards Sialkot and from Amritsar and Ferozpur towards Lahore".

■ Indian Food Minster Mr. C. Subramaniam warns that India faces serious food shortage resulting in reduction in daily ration.

■ Indian Deputy Minister External Affairs, Mr. Dinesh Singh asked Rajya Sabha to break ties with Indonesia for continued anti-India demonstrations in Indonesia.

■ General Musa met troops at Lahore sector and found them in high spirit and confidence.


■ Sialkot-Jammu Sector: Pakistani Forces kept up pressure, gained more ground in enemy territory and caused heavy losses to the Indian troops.

■ Wagah-Attari Sector: India lost 7 tanks besides surrendering 10 Indian soldiers. Three enemy attacks were also foiled in the sector.

■ Khem Karan Sector: Four enemy attempts to gain ground foiled. Pakistani artillery kept on pounding Indian positions. 2 GNATs aircraft were shot down while four others were chased out by PAF.

■ Fazlika, Rajasthan and Akhnoor Sector: Pakistani forces consolidated gains. Rajput Fort of Kishangarh in Rajasthan was captured.

■ Mujahids raided Indian battalion at Rajauri sector and killed 63 Indian troops.

■ PAF struck deep into enemy territory at IAF Base Ambala. 4 Canberra bombers and installations in the technical area damaged.

Indian Air Force Losses


National Morale

■ Lahoris with jubilation drove Indian Maj Gen Naranjan Parasad's jeep captured alongwith his diary followed by a procession through main streets of Lahore.

■ "Rang laye ga shaheedon ka laho" written by Tanveer Naqvi sung by Madam Noor Jahan went on air.


19th September 1965

"India had accepted the ceasefire unconditionally but we refuse to link Kashmir problem with the ceasefire"

Indian Education Minister Mr. Chagla stated in Security Council

■ Indians faced series of humiliating defeats on land and in the air by PAF.

Peter Mansfield, The Sunday Times

■ Indian POWs stated that the Indian caste system is disastrous in their Army. Officers above the rank of Major never appear on frontline. The soldiers were given orders and then left to get on with the fighting. No wonder they ran away.

Peter Mansfield, The Sunday Times  

■ "India is an out-and-out aggressor in this war". Mrs. Bandaranaike, Premier of Sri Lanka. Pakistani Account

■ The Commandant PMA while addressing the Passing Out Parade at Kakul said "with the Indian invasion on Pakistan borders, the Armed Forces have been given an opportunity to write a new chapter of the glorious history".

■ Within six hours Indians launched three air raids during visit of local and foreign journalists at Khem Karan sector which were repulsed successfully and Pakistani Commander stated, "Indian Airmen had been specially trained to miss their targets because of their lack of training and professionalism".


■ Sialkot-Jammu Sector:40 enemy tanks were destroyed, 3 officers, 4 JCOs and 102 soldiers taken prisoners.

■ Despite overwhelming superiority in number and armament, Indian Army had been given a humiliating defeat and is being taught an unforgettable lesson. To avoid humiliation, Indian High Command desperately wanted to push back Pakistani forces from their territory and planned a series of attacks.

■ Wagah-Attari Sector: Indian forces launched two pronged full scale attacks but were beaten back aggressively. Pakistani Forces caused heavy causalities to them.

■ Khem Karan Sector: Two Indian counter attacks beaten back with heavy losses. In Kasur-Khem Karan sector they have been pushed back several miles inside their territory.

■ Chawinda: Pakistan Army has written a new chapter of glorious history. The bravery of Pakistani troops has thoroughly demoralized Indian army and they are hardly in any shape to face Pakistan Army.

■ Sindh-Rajasthan Sector: 150 Indians were killed and 21 taken prisoners.

■ Fazlika and Akhnoor Sector: Pakistani forces continue to maintain pressure on enemy.

■ Mujahids raided another Indian military base around six miles from Rajauri and destroyed an important bridge on the Srinagar-Bagram Road about 15 miles from Srinagar. The communication lines of the Indian troops based in Taso Maidan area have been completely cut off. In many areas of Srinagar, Indian control had been completely wiped out and they now resorted to harassing people by firing from helicopters.

■ PAF maintained air supremacy and continued giving support to our ground forces and also shot down an IAF Hunter plane over Sialkot Jammu sector.

National Morale

■ Writers, poets and thinkers all over Pakistan decided to donate 10 % of their income to National Defense Fund and resolved to send 5 men team of writers to each frontline to express admiration and gratitude to the Armed Forces.


20th September 1965

"Lahore Cantonment is our aim," Indian Army Chief

■ Times Magazine quoted ex-Indian Defense Minister Krishna Menon, "India was opposed to a plebiscite because she would lose it. Since 1949 India has violated four times the UN order for plebiscite".

■ American Time Magazine, "Pakistan's small highly-trained army is more than a match for the Indians. The PAF seems to have made a spectacular number of kills".

■ Britain's Independent TV from POW camp Kohat televised a film showing, "Indian Army is in shambles and its morale extremely low. Indian Army had shown little enthusiasm for the war against Pakistan".

■ Times Magazine correspondent quoted a POW Havildar of Indian 6th Light Infantry that "he had no idea he was going to be involved in open war with Pakistan when his battalion moved up to the frontier."

Pakistani Account

■ President Ayub strongly condemned the Security Council's resolution, "calling for a ceasefire without providing for a plebiscite in Kashmir"


■ Sialkot-Jammu Sector: Pakistani Forces continue to maintain control over earlier Indian held territory in all sectors besides capturing two more Indian tanks.

■ Wagah-Attari sector: 12 enemy tanks destroyed raising the total to 494. Pakistani artillery guns forced Indian guns to remain silent at Fazilka, Rajasthan and Akhnoor sectors.

■ PAF: 4 IAF planes shot down. 110 enemy aircraft destroyed so far.

■ PAF bombers successfully carried out precision attacks on the IAF bases and installations at Ambala, Jodhpur, Jammu, Jamnagar and Halwara.

■ Pakistan Navy maintained dominance in Arabian Sea and ceased Indian liberty.

National Morale

■ Pakistanis cheered as one of the 4 Indian fighters burst into flames and spiraled earthwards from the clear blue sky, trailing smoke. Lahorites enjoy air combat as stated by John Chadwick from Reuters.

■ A delegation of Lebanese and Saudi ulema called on Pakistan's Ambassa-dor Hamid Nawaz and conveyed him sympathy and support of Muslims for Pakistan.

■ Government of Pakistan announced immediate monetary relief package for the families of central government servants reported missing or killed in enemy action.


2 1st September 1965

India informed UN her willingness to accept Security Council Resolution for ceasefire

PM Shastri

■ U. Thant's report to UN "It is dangerous to leave Kashmir issue unresolved".

■ Times Magazine special correspondent, "Pakistan's decisive victory in historical Sialkot tank battle is confirmed today".

■ 4000 Indonesian youth marched through the streets of Jakarta chanting slogans, "India is our enemy, crush India and go home India".

Pakistani Account

■ President Ayub Khan awarded 42 Jurat Awards including Hilal-e-Jurat, second highest gallantry award to Maj Gen Abrar Hussain, Brig Abdul All and Brig Amjad All Khan. Squadron Leader Khan Najeeb Ahmed also awarded Sitara-e-Jurat.


■ Sialkot Sector: Pakistani Forces dominated the battlefield in Sialkot sector and made more tactical gains in Khem Karan and Hussainiwala sector. In one of the encounters in the Sialkot area, 6 enemy tanks were knocked out. In Fazilka area most of the villages around the town have been evacuated by the Indians due to panic following an engagement.

■ 11 Indian tanks and six machine guns were destroyed along with substantial quantity of ammunition were captured. Moreover, 3 enemy anti-tank guns were also destroyed.

■ Rajasthan Sector: Indians made an abortive bid to advance towards Dali but Pakistani forces gave them tough time and captured substantial amount of arms/equipment.

■ Pakistan Navy fleets remain vigilant while guarding against Indian aggression.

■ Vigilance of PAF remained high as their interceptors shot down an IAF Canberra bomber near Sargodha and a Hunter over Lahore. PAF damaged IAF installations at Adampur, Halwara and Jodhpur bases.


22nd September 1965

Announced ceasefire giving Indian forces sigh of relief

PM Shastri

■ 17 days wanton misadventure cost India too heavy. Pakistani forces destroyed 113 Indian aircraft, 500 tanks, 7200 soldiers killed and 1000 taken prisoners. Indian first Field Marshal Carriappa's son Flight Lieutenant K.C Carriappa's Hunter aircraft was hit over Kasur and he bailed out and made POW.

■ Indian Air Force bombed a small hospital in village Dali causing heavy losses to building, patients and innocents.

■ India jammed radio "Sada-e-Kashmir" which was broadcasting the news of Mujahideen.

Pakistani Account

■ President FM Muhammad Ayub Khan announced to accept UN ceasefire resolution, however, announced not to withdraw its troops from their present locations.

■ U.S. President Johnson assured President Ayub of his support in UN settling differences between India and Pakistan.

■ Iranian PM Amir Abbas Hoveyda announced oil supply to Pakistan.

■ Gen Musa Khan visited frontline and met the soldiers.


■ Khem Karan-Huseniwala Sector: Repeated Indian attempts foiled with heavy losses to both men and material, causing demoralizing effect on Indian soldiers.

■ Sialkot-Lahore, Fazilka-Akhnur Sectors: Pakistani forces maintained aggressive posture, destroyed 7 Indian Centurion tanks and captured one fully intact, breaking Indian soldiers' will to fight.

■ Wagah-Attari Sector: Pakistan Army ingress in Indian territory caused heavy damage to retaliating Indian troops.

■ Rajasthan Sector: Pakistani forces further penetrated and captured six more Indian posts namely, Gotaru, Bhutewala, Malesar, Rai Chandwala, Bulli Kallan and Kala Dhar Toba.

■ Attack on Dali Post: Indian radio made false claims that Pakistani Dali post had been captured whereas Indian troops were repulsed while suffering heavy losses including 5 officers, 2 JCOs and 90 soldiers as POWs to 18 Punjab Regiment. Fleeing Indian army also left 2 jeeps, 3 Dodges, 3 trucks and piles of weapons and ammunition.

■ Mujahideen cut off the Jammu-Srinagar road, attacked Indian convoy on/ Srinagar-Tangmurg road, blasting four out of 10 vehicles killing twenty one Indian soldiers.

■ Pakistan Navy fleet continued to patrol the Arabian Sea.

■ PAF maintained dominance in the air. In last 24 hours, PAF destroyed 11 tanks, 25 artillery guns, 39 vehicles and many ammunition dumps including Jodhpur airbase.

National Morale

■ PIA announced to resume Karachi-Dacca flights via Colombo.

■ President Ayub Khan paid rich tribute to the people of Lahore and Sialkot for their fearless response under the Indian aggression.

23rd September 1965

86 Indian Parliamentarians urged PM Shastri to order to start nuclear program to deal with China and Pakistan

■ Indian army resorted to brutal attacks on Kashmiri Muslims forcing over 2000 Muslims to cross over to AJK.

■ Indian leading newspapers urged the government to quit Commonwealth of Nations in view of inadequate British support to India during the war.

■ Indian forces launched last minute offensives to regain lost territories.

International Scenario

■ Mr. Arthur J. Goldberg, Chief U.S. delegate at UN stated at UN General Assembly that the solution of Kashmir issue will be reaffirmed with U.S. assistance.


■ Sialkot-Jammu Sector: Pakistani forces maintained their aggressive posture with close air support and did not allow Indian army any freedom of action.

■ Wagah-Attari Sector: A last minute massive attack was launched by Indian army with two brigades in a desperate attempt to gain territory but failed.

■ Khem Karan Sector: Indian army while pretending to readjust for ceasefire tried to launch a whole division but remained unsuccessful.

■ Rajasthan Sector: Pakistani forces repulsed Indian army attempts to capture Dali. These attacks came after the main battalion level attack of September 22, in which Pakistani army took 97 Indian POWs including 5 officers, had failed.

■ Mujahideen killed more than 80 Indian soldiers during last 24 hours in various clashes. It was reported that Indian army employed ten ambulances and seven military trucks to remove the dead and wounded.

■ Pakistan Navy units were attacked by Indian warship in high seas. During the clash PN sank an attacking Indian Frigate.

■ PAF jets while providing close support to ground forces in Wagah-Attari sector attacked and destroyed a large Indian army convoy carrying huge quantity of supplies and ammunition.

■ Air Marshal Nur Khan congratulated PAF on outstanding performance in the war.

National Morale

■ People of Lahore hailed and welcomed President Ayub Khan's ceasefire announcement.

■ PIA resumed its intercity service which remained suspended during the war.


Indian Aggression Blunted

Pakistan Army Fights Back: Dawn of September 6, 1965 saw Indian forces crossing international border and attacking fronts at Lahore, Sialkot and Kasur which were 14, 6 and 3 miles away from the border, respectively. While India could not capture any significant area across international border, Pakistan Army captured 1200 square miles of area in Rajasthan, over 350 square miles in Akhnoor and 16 square miles in Kotli. In Lahore sector alone, India lost over 2,000 men and nearly 5,000 were wounded. Whatever ground Indians took within first 17 hours of the battle became their final achievement; they couldn't take an inch more in next seventeen days. Indian army mounted 13 major attacks on Lahore-Kasur front and 15 major attacks on Sialkot front, besides efforts in Rajasthan and other areas. Most of these attacks were repulsed.

 Pakistan Navy Takes the Battle to Indian Shores: Pakistan Navy dominated the sea and kept the sea lanes open. Ghazi submarine denied liberty of action to Indian Navy despite the latter being equipped with one aircraft carrier, two cruisers, nineteen destroyers/frigates. PN sailors' professionalism was endorsed after successful Dwarka Operation, 200 miles away from Karachi Port. Submarine Ghazi besieged Indian Aircraft Carrier and other war ships within their ports. They were so frightened that till the end of war they did not come in open sea.

Pakistan Air Force Dominates the Sky: PAF was pitched against IAF which was 3.6 times bigger. In deadly airstrikes on Pathankot airbase, PAF annihilated total 22 Indian jets. Squadron Leader M.M Alam performed outstanding in this war. India suffered through air action, resulting destruction of 110 aircraft, 149 tanks, 600 vehicles and 60 artillery guns and damage of 19 aircraft.

Indomitable National Resolve: Pakistani nation faced the most arduous challenge in her 18th year of independence. The enemy had come with clear intent of capturing Lahore, Sialkot and Kasur. September 1965 would never be forgotten in India and Pakistan for different reasons. India had been badly bruised by China in 1962 war. Her effort to undo her humiliation from China only got compounded after her forces got severely beaten against Pakistan in 1965. Pakistani nation displayed its indomitable resilience against foreign aggression. Undeterred and unshakable, the nation surprised the enemy by deciding the war in Pakistan's favor in mere 17 days.

Indian Numerical Superiority:

International Support for Pakistan

■ China,Turkey, Australia, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Iran, Saudi Arabia and New Zealand showed solidarity with Pakistan and denounced Indian aggression. "Chinese government sternly condemns India for her criminal aggression and expresses firm support for Pakistan". Chinese PM Zhou Enlai

■ "Indonesia prays for Pakistan, who is fighting fiercely to maintain sovereignty and freedom". President of Indonesia Sukarno

■ Painful development concerns Pakistan and Turkey which are CENTO allies. Unbreakable bonds of friendship and brotherhood exist between two nations. PM Suat Hayri Urguplu

International Media Testimony of Pakistan's Victory

■ Time Magazine correspondent, Louis Kanar, September 22, 1965 stated, "Playing with fire by these men - from Jawan to the General Officer Commanding, as like children playing with marble in the streets. I asked the Pakistani General "How were you overpowering the Indians despite being in a small number. The officer looked at me, smiled and said, if courage, bravery and patriotism were purchasable commodities then India could have got them along with American

■ A journalist, Bintang Timur working with Jakarta said, "It was India who first committed military attack on Pakistan, and for this she must be condemned and Pakistan must be defended:' ■ Correspondent of The Guardian, Peter Preston, "Pakistan morally and physically had won the air-battle against the Indians. The Indians had no sense of purpose. The Pakistanis were defending their own country and willingly taking greater risks."

■ Daily Express, London, Donald Seaman, September 24, 1965, "Four Indian divisions and one armoured division fought non stop battle with two Pakistani divisions and one armoured division. Indian plan was to swing around Sialkot, take Lahore and cut west Pakistan in two and bring it on its knees for which India launched 30,000 troops against 9,000 Pakistani troops. Out numbered three to one, Pakistanis beat Indians to a standstill and were about to mount a counter attack in last six hours before the ceasefire when they were stopped on political grounds".

■ Times of India, Bombay, September 16, 1965,"It is clear from the fury with which the enemy (Pakistan) is fighting on all fronts that it has not been easy for the Indian army to advance into Pakistani territory".

■ Newsweek, Frank Melville, September 27, 1965,"Despite the bombings, the morale among the Pakistani jawans (which is the Hindustani for GIs and literally means' strong young men') remained extremely high. Their coolness and thoughtness under fire have paid dividends".

■ Top of the News, Washington, September 6-10, 1965,"The first Indian regiment that found itself face to face with the Pakistanis didn't get clobbered. They just turned and ran, leaving all their equipment, artillery supplies and even extra clothing and supplies behind".

■ The Indonesian Herald, September 15, 1965,"India brought up the bulk of its armoured forces in an effort to force a decision but the Pakistan Armed Forces stood like an impregnable wall and dealt a heavy punishment to the enemy columns. Who can defeat a nation which knows to play hide and seek with death? I may or may not remember the Indo-Pakistan war but I will never forget the smile full of nerve by a Pakistani military officer".

■ Al-Gamhoriya (Cairo) Mohammad Odah stated, "Indian military had wanted to avenge their defeat at the hands of China in 1962. It wanted to restore their prestige among Indian masses, settle the Kashmir problem with force, but Pakistan Army had frustrated all these designs.... neither Lahore nor any part of Pakistan surrendered to India."

■ ABC Correspondent, Roy Meloni wrote, "India was claiming all-out victory, but I have not been able to find any trace of it. Indian Air Force had been knocked from the skies by Pakistani planes".


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