07
January

عقل بمقابلہ عشق

تحریر: یاسر پیرزادہ

حسن البصری اپنے شاگردوں کو مسجد میں لیکچر دے رہے تھے لیکچر اپنے اختتام کو تھا کہ اچانک ایک طالب علم نے عجیب ساسوال داغ دیا ۔کہنے لگا: ’’استاد محترم! ہمارے ہاں ایک جماعت ایسی پیدا ہو چکی ہے جس کا ماننا ہے کہ گناہ کبیرہ کرنے والا شخص دائرہ اسلام سے خارج ہو جاتا ہے جبکہ دوسری طرف لوگوں کا ایک گروہ ایسا بھی ہے جو یہ کہتا ہے کہ گناہ کبیرہ کا مرتکب ہونے والے کے لئے بھی نجات کا دروازہ کھلا ہے۔ ان کی دلیل یہ ہے کہ جیسے کسی کافر کی عبادت اسے کوئی فائدہ نہیں پہنچا سکتی اسی طرح کسی مسلمان کا گناہ اسے کوئی ایسا نقصان نہیں پہنچا سکتا جس کی تلافی نہ ہوسکے ‘آپ کی رائے میں سچائی کا راستہ کیا ہے ؟‘‘اس سے پہلے کہ حسن البصری جواب دیتے ‘حاضرین میں سے ایک نوجوان اٹھا اور بولا:’’گناہ کبیرہ کا مرتکب ہونے والا شخص ایمان کے دائرے سے باہر سمجھا جائے گااور نہ ہی وہ سچا مسلمان مانا جائے گا‘اسے ایمان اور کفر کے درمیان کی ایک ’’منزل‘‘ میں رکھا جائے گا ۔‘‘ یہ کہنے کے بعد وہ نوجوا ن مسجد کے دوسرے سرے کی جانب گیا اور وہاں موجود طلبا کو اپنا نقطہ نظر سمجھانے لگا۔ نوجوان کا نام واصل ابن عطا تھا۔حسن البصری نے ایک نگاہ اس کی جانب ڈالی اور بولے ’’ یہ شخص ہم میں سے نکل گیا‘‘۔اس وقت سے واصل ابن عطا اور ان کے پیروکاروں کو ’’معتزلین‘‘کہا جاتا ہے ‘ واصل ابن عطا ’’المعتزلہ‘‘ تحریک کا بانی ہے۔

 

یہ شخص بلا کا ذہین تھا ‘ اس نے مذہب کو عقلی بنیاد پر پرکھنے کی روایت ڈالی اور دقیق دینی اور فلسفیانہ موضوعات پر ایسی رائے دی جس نے عام مسلمان کو بے حد متاثر کیا ۔واصل کی گردن ذرا لمبی تھی جسے دیکھ کر عمر ابن عبید نے ایک مرتبہ کہا تھا کہ ’’ایسی لمبی گردن والے شخص میں کوئی خیر نہیں ہو سکتی۔‘‘واصل عربی کا حرف ’’ر‘‘ نہیں بول سکتا تھا لہٰذا گفتگو میں اس بات کاخاص خیال رکھتا کہ زبان سے کوئی ایسا لفظ نہ پھسل جائے جس میں ’’ر‘‘ آتا ہو‘ مگر اس کے باوجود اس قدر روانی سے بولتاکہ سننے والے دنگ رہ جاتے۔اس نے ایک ضخیم مقالہ بھی تحریر کیا مگر اس پورے مقالے میں کہیں ایک جگہ بھی ’’ر‘‘ کا استعمال نہیں کیا۔واصل کی عقلیت پسندی اس کے عقائد میں جا بجا جھلکتی ہے۔مثلاً انسان کی مجبوری و مختاری کے مسئلے پر وہ اپنی رائے یوں دیتا ہے کہ خدا عاقل اور انصاف پسند ہے ‘شر اور نا انصافی اس کی صفات میں شامل کی ہی نہیں جا سکتیں ‘اس بات کا جواز کیسے ممکن ہے کہ وہ اپنی مخلوق کو جس بات کا حکم دے اس کی مرضی اس کے بر عکس ہو‘ لہٰذا خیر اور شر‘کفر و الحاد‘ فرمانبرداری اور گناہ اس کی مخلوق کے اعمال ہیں ‘یعنی مخلوق ہی اپنے اعمال کی خالق و مختارہے لہٰذا انہی کی بنیاد پر اسے سزا و جزا کا حقدار ٹھہرایا جائے گا‘یہ ناممکن ہے کہ غلام کو آقا کی طرف سے کوئی ایسا حکم بجا لانے کو کہا جائے جو اس کے بس سے باہر ہو‘بندے کو وہی کرنے کو کہا جاتا ہے جس کی وہ استطاعت رکھتا ہے۔ اسلامی تاریخ کے عظیم مفکر ابن حزم نے واصل کے ان خیالات کے بارے میں کہا تھا کہ معتزلین نے انسان کی مجبوری و مختاری کے مسئلے پر نہایت عمدہ کام کیا ہے ‘اگر انسان کو اپنے معاملات میں کلی طور پر مختار مان لیا جائے تو شریعت کی عمارت کا وجود قائم نہیں رہ سکتا۔

 

معتزلین کی عقلیت پسندی میں بظاہر بڑی کشش نظر آتی ہے مگر ان کے ناقدین کی رائے میں ان سے یہ غلطی ہوئی کہ انہوں نے ان تمام تصورات کو رد کر دیا جو عقل کے پیمانے میں سموتے نہیں تھے ۔وہ یہ بات نظر انداز کر گئے کہ عقل انسانی بھی اسی طرح خدا کا ایک تحفہ ہے جیسے انسان کو ودیعت کی گئیں دیگر حسیات۔جس طرح انسان کے دیگر ذرائع علم کی اپنی حدود ہیں اسی طرح عقل کی بھی کچھ حدود ہیں اور ضروری نہیں کہ آفاقی سچائی عقل سے ہی سمجھ میں آ جائے۔ بقول شیکسپئیر :

"There are more things in heavan and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy"

 

عباسی حکمرانوں ‘خاص طور سے خلیفہ مامون الرشید ‘نے معتزلین کی کافی سرپرستی کی اور عقلیت پسندی کو عوامی سطح پر روشناس کروایا۔معتزلین سچائی اور حقیقت کو محض عقل کی کسوٹی

پر ہی پرکھنے پر مصر رہے جس کا نتیجہ یہ نکلا کہ انہوں نے ایمان کوبھی خالصتاً فلسفے کے انداز میں جانچنا شروع کر دیا۔ انہوں نے یہ حقیقت یکسر بھلا دی کہ مذہب کے بنیادی عقائد کو کبھی بھی عملاً منطقی اعتبار سے جانچا نہیں جا سکتااور نہ ہی ان کا عقلی ثبوت مہیا کیا جا سکتا ہے ۔مذہب کے بنیادی عقائد کا تعلق چندفوق الادراک سچائیوں سے ہے جنہیں پہلے ہمیں وحی کی بنیادپر ماننا پڑے گا ‘اس کے بعد انسانی عقل کی حدود شروع ہوں گی۔ اگر ہم ہر عقیدے کو ہی عقل کی کسوٹی پر جانچیں گے تو یہ کسوٹی اس کے لئے درست نہیں ہوگی کیونکہ عقل ایمان کا احاطہ کرنے سے قاصر ہے ۔اس ضمن میں کانٹ کی دلیل دلچسپ ہے۔ ‘کانٹ کے زمانے میں چرچ خدا کے بیٹے کا وجود ثابت کرنے کے لئے عقلی دلائل تلاش کر رہا تھا مگر کامیاب نہیں ہو پایا۔کانٹ نے پادریوں کی مشکل حل کر دی۔ اس نے کہا کہ خدا نے انسان کو پیور ریزن دی ہے پیور ریزن ودیعت نہیں کی‘ پریکٹیکل ریزن ہمارے مسائل تو حل کر سکتی ہے مگر خدا کی ذات کا تعلق پیور ریزن سے ہے اور وہ ہمیں نہیں ملی۔

 

عارف اور عالم دونوں ہی سچائی کے راستے تک لے جاتے ہیں مگر عارف کا ذریعہ عرفان ہے جبکہ عالم کا عقل ‘یہ ذرائع درست بھی ہو سکتے ہیں اور غلط بھی۔ مولانا روم کے بقول عقلی استدلال شیطانی بھی ہو سکتا ہے اور رحمانی بھی ‘مگر غلطی کے امکان کے باوجود انسان نے ترقی کی ہے ۔چونکہ یہ دنیا احساسات کی دنیا ہے اس لئے علم کے اس ذریعے کو فوقیت دی جاتی ہے جو عقل پر مبنی ہے ۔دوسری طرف عرفان کا تعلق صرف مذہب سے نہیں بلکہ دنیاوی معاملات میں بھی وجدان سے کام لیا جاتا ہے ‘یہی وجہ ہے کہ بعض اوقات ہم کوئی فیصلہ عقلی اعتبار سے درست معلوم ہونے کے باوجود اس لئے نہیں کرتے کہ دل نہیں مانتا حالانکہ اس کی کوئی عقلی توجیح نہیں ہوتی۔

 

عقل و عشق کے معرکے کی دلچسپ بات یہ ہے کہ ہم وجدان کا قائل ہونے کے لئے بھی بہرحال عقلی دلائل کا ہی سہارا لیتے ہیں‘تاہم اس میں بھی کوئی شک نہیں کہ عقل اور عشق دونوں کی منزل ایک ہی ہے مگر بقو ل اقبال ‘عقل ہمیں دھیرے دھیر ے اس مقام تک لے جاتی ہے جبکہ عشق ایک ہی جست میں تمام منازل پار کر لیتا ہے ‘ اسی لئے روز مرہ زندگی کے فیصلے ہمیں عقل کی رو سے کرنے چاہئیں جبکہ بڑے فیصلے دل سے کرنے چاہئیں ۔وہ مقام کب آتا ہے جب دل سے فیصلہ کرنا ضروری ہوتا ہے ‘اس کا ذکر پھر کبھی۔

نوٹ :اس کالم میں معتزلین کے بارے میں حقائق ‘پروفیسر میر ولی الدین‘ عثمانیہ یونیورسٹی ‘ حیدر آباد دکن‘کے مقالے سے حاصل کئے گئے ہیں۔

مضمون نگار معروف کالم نویس اور تجزیہ نگار ہیں۔

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

aqalbmaqbla.jpg
 
07
August

Pakistan Navy: Serving the Nation

Published in Hilal English

Written By: Usman Ansari

Concepts of ‘generational improvement’ and social mobility essentially outline how successive generations should aim for better life than their predecessors with improved living standards and status, are heavily tied to access to good quality education. Furthermore, should a good quality education be unobtainable due to lack of financial resources and/or lack of suitable educational facilities, the lower class of society finds itself permanently locked in a cycle of poverty. These factors may exist due to various reasons all over Pakistan, but are especially pronounced in Balochistan that has suffered sustained lack of opportunities if compared to other provinces. For a number of reasons literacy rate is extremely low in Balochistan.

 

pnservingnation.jpgPakistan Navy is fully aware of this situation in Balochistan being an established military force across the entire coastal area in Balochistan. PN has therefore, expended considerable effort to improve educational facilities and prospects for the Baloch youth in the coastal areas and has improved recruitment opportunities for the young Baloch students to have a successful career in Pakistan Navy. Pakistan Navy also runs education facilities that provide both free education and has reserved seats in these institutions for the local students. These institutions not only serve the immediate and long term aspirations of the local communities to achieve an element of generational/social mobility but bring them into the mainstream of Pakistani society as well as increasing the Pakistan Navy’s talent pool from which to potentially draw recruits.


One of Pakistan Navy’s flagship educational projects is Cadet College Ormara (CCO). CCO is a major educational facility in Balochistan in support of federal government initiatives to improve education in the province, and is providing education from Class VIII to HSSC level. CCO facilities include full range of academic, accommodation, administrative, and recreational (including a swimming pool), and prayer facilities amongst others to support the full range of educational and extracurricular needs of students. CCO is undoubtedly a standout education facility as four batches of 60 cadets made up the initial intake, making the present number of students approximately 260. Perhaps more important than the facilities themselves; however, are the efforts to widen access to CCO to all levels of local society in which fifty percent of seats are reserved for the Baloch students who are provided free education as well. Of the current student intake, 109 cadets at CCO are the local Baloch students.


The inclusion of cadets in CCO’s intake is notable as the scheme has been revived exclusively for Baloch candidates in which all expenditures, i.e., education, boarding/lodging, messing, and others are borne by government of Pakistan. Under the scheme 25 Baloch candidates will be selected each year to undergo studies from Class VIII to HSSC. Should they complete this course of study and get recommended by the ISSB, they will then be cleared to join Pakistan Naval Academy as PN cadets. This gives them the opportunity to not only have good education, but the opportunity for a career as well, something perhaps equally important in a region where employment opportunities to suit a higher level of education are limited. Additionally, it is ensured that the scheme is available to students from humble backgrounds who otherwise are unable to avail such opportunities.


These schemes will be indispensible in setting up local students with a chance to have successful careers. However, there is no escaping the fact that a sound primary education is the key giving children the initial chance to make the best of their abilities. Unfortunately due to financial constraints, Montessori level education is beyond the reach of many parents who also struggle to provide their children with a primary level education. To overcome this constraint, the Bahria Foundation has established subsidised educational facilities to provide students with the firm foundation from where they may progress, starting from Montessori level. These include Bahria Model College Ormara (BMCO), Bahria Model School Gwadar (BMSG), Bahria Model School Jiwani (BMSJ), and Bahria Model School Turbat (BMST). It is worth looking at these schools individually as they have been established recently.


BMCO was established in 2004 to offer classes from Montessori as a primary school, but has since become a college offering classes to HSSC and is affiliated with the Quetta Board. Of the current 650 students, 500 are local Baloch students, which indicates that BMCO is one of the main educational facilities in Ormara. Pakistan Navy is further supporting the BMCO by providing pick and drop facilities for students and staff besides providing staff and financing the running of BMCO. Bahria Model School Gwadar (BMSG) runs classes from Montessori to Class IX, and was established in 2010 to provide subsidised education to local Baloch children. 417 students currently registered at the school are entirely locals, with the eventual aim to increase this to 1,000 when the new school building currently under construction is completed. This will also allow provision of education up to intermediate level. New building will feature a library, science laboratory, plus indoor and outdoor sports facilities. Not only will BMSG evolve into a standout educational facility for the port and surrounding region, but is also set to become a significant employer in Gwadar. Running costs of the school are presently being met by grant from Pakistan Navy though students also pay a nominal fee.


Towards the western coast at Jiwani, Bahria Model School Jiwani (BMSJ) was established in 2012 where students from Montessori to Class IV are allowed addmissions. All the 163 students presently enrolled at the school are locals, and its running cost plus salaries are being met by Pakistan Navy. The newest of Pakistan Navy run educational facilities is Bahria Model School Turbat (BMST) that was established in 2015 to provide education from Montessori to Class III for the 159 students presently enrolled. The school building is being constructed in phases with ten classrooms and associated facilities presently available, but will eventually be expanded to offer college level education.


Considering the small population of the towns in which the above schools have been established, (with only Gwadar and Turbat approaching anywhere near 100,000 residents, and the others far fewer), they offer an important avenue for the long term advancement of the local population over and above the existing educational facilities already present. Certainly in the smaller towns, such as Jiwani and Ormara, the schools established by Pakistan Navy are the only quality educational facilities making them all the more important. Considering Ormara is Pakistan Navy’s operational base it stands to reason that much of its development efforts are focused there. Therefore, Pakistan Navy has also endeavoured to support existing schools at Ormara City. These include the Government Boys High School Ormara, Government Girls High School Ormara, and Government Middle School for Boys Ormara – Pakistan Navy is providing assistance such as furniture, stationery, teachers and maintenance of the school buildings. Additionally, a serving naval officer (a Lieutenant or Lieutenant Commander), is also appointed as the principal of Government High School Ormara. Children from the coastal strip in Balochistan are also the beneficiaries of the Chief of Naval Staff 'Sponsor a Child Scheme' whereby students from humble backgrounds can be sponsored to allow them to benefit from free education at Bahria Model Schools, and some may also be eligible for provision of books, stationery, uniform, and shoes. 129 students are currently benefiting from this generous scheme. Not all efforts are restricted to the coastal strip however, a scheme is in place to reserve two seats for Baloch students and one from Dera Bugti at the prestigious Cadet College Petaro (CCP) in Sindh.


Efforts to increase the educational opportunities for Baloch students are not just confined to Balochistan. Having been the main focus of naval activity since independence, Karachi has by far used the most naval facilities, and this also includes Bahria Model Schools. To take advantage of these educational facilities, and avail them for the use of Baloch students, a scheme has been put in place to provide free (fully funded) education. Pakistan Navy meets all boarding/lodging, and educational costs to 10 Baloch students per year in Karachi from Class VIII to HSSC. Presently there are 30 students that are benefiting from the scheme, and upon completion of their studies they will have the opportunity to join Pakistan Navy. In recognition of the need to nurture the talents of local Baloch students to their fullest and allow them to reach their full potential, access to higher education has also been taken care of through reservation of places in Bahria University. One place each has been reserved in the MBA and BBA programmes at the university’s Karachi campus. Those selected for these places are spared tuition and associated fee. Furthermore, one place each is reserved in the MBBS and BDS Departments at Bahria University Medical & Dental College. As a service to the nation at large, its efforts to support education in Balochistan are an excellent example of Pakistan Navy serving the nation at land as well as sea.

 

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
 
26
December

Balochistan: As I see it

Published in Hilal English Jan 2014

Written By: Shahid Ali Khan Baloch

Balochistan is always projected as an area having many problems. For the last decade or so it has turned into a playing field of different regional and global powers. Intelligence agencies of different countries have been using politically and ideologically half-baked, directionless and unemployed Baloch youth for their vested geo-political interests. The Baloch youth, acting under catchy slogans, are used as a fuel in a battle to control major geographical choke points, resource-rich areas and their major possible routes. In addition to logistic and financial help of the foreign actors, the moral and political assistance from few media elements, civil society activists and certain political parties, have placed these foreign funded separatists at a much advantageous position as they have managed to divert public opinion in their favour despite their crimes against national security and common people in Balochistan. These armed groups have mainly focused on soft targets in Baloch-dominated areas to remain alive in news headlines and create problems in Balochistan. Firstly, they started targeting non-Baloch teachers, doctors, engineers and labourers. But when it became harder for them to find anymore such soft target, they switched to Baloch political workers, teachers, doctors and tribal elders. They acted on a simple formula; whoever is not following your political line, or has some personal or tribal clash with you, just go and target him. Once he is targeted, declare him an ISI Agent and claim responsibility of his killing by using a foreign-gifted satellite phone and harass his family and friends. Till 2008, these separatists received a considerable attention from a segment of Baloch political workers, civil society and common masses. But once they started targeting innocent Baloch people because they had faith in Federation of Pakistan or they had tribal or individual differences with these terrorists, the people of Balochistan started to shed away shadows of fear and dared to speak against them in public. With the passage of time the victims of these foreign–funded terrorism started to get united and mobilised. Now, by this time, the people are strong enough to force these elements to vacate certain areas including Quetta, Mastung, Kalat, Dera Bugti, Kohlu and Khuzdar.

At present, one can safely claim that only pro-federation majority is the only stakeholders in Balochistan issue. Anti-state camp is represented by Hairbiyaar Marri, Brahamdagh Bugti, Dr. Allah Nazar and Javed Mengal. While pro-state camp is led by Sarfraz Bugti, Shafique Mengal and Siraj Raisani. The cause of concern here is to unfold the fact that our so-called independent media, civil society and political parties, following the traditional rhetoric are denying to accept existence of the important pro-Pakistan stakeholders in Balochistan. It is about time that they should also change their prejudiced lenses and should acknowledge the role, contribution and importance of these pro-federation Baloch figures fighting disgruntled elements in Balochistan. Irony of fact is that they are targeted by anti-state elements and our so-called independent media and vibrant civil society, because they are pro-Pakistan. In today's media activism, one hardly finds representation of the community which is torch-bearer of resistance against those who are resisting writ of the state in Balochistan. In the most cases, we see either nationalists or least bothered federalists speaking their brand of Balochistan conflict.

Amid this whole scenario, if one wants to move towards a serious and genuine conflict analysis in Balochistan, he needs to be mindful of the fact that it is not Balochistan of 1960s and 1970s when just few tribal nawabs (chieftains) were the only stakeholders. A major difference between present situation and past movements is the active role of youth. In majority of cases, small groups of youth operate independently under a loose command. In such a situation, they get influenced by petty local considerations and end up in using this foreign-funded political infrastructure to settle their non-political individual issues. Due to leadership role of youngsters at this level, a clear manifestation of reactionary and immature decision-making has been noticed in militant groups. Killing of innocent people including teachers and doctors, destroying electricity polls and targeting relief activities during recent Awaran earthquake are examples of the immature decision-making. Such policies on one hand have resulted in complete isolation of militants and on other hand have paved the way for emergence of a strong reaction against these terrorists from within the Baloch society. If we analyse the main targets of these armed groups during past three four years, it will become evident that in more than 70% cases, they have targeted people associated with Sarfaraz Bugti, Shafique Mengal or Siraj Raisani. So, this situation boils down to a point that if we speak of major stakeholders of present conflict within boundries of Pakistan, these are three, namely: Pakistani Government, Baloch militants and their pro-state Baloch opponents in Balochistan. So, if there is any attempt of reconciliation excluding these pro-state activists, it will prove ephemeral and will burst into pieces like a bubble and may lead to law and order situation in the province. Once weaken, these pro-federation elements will be easily targeted by the militants.

So, the need of the hour and writing on the wall requires us to open our minds and eyes to see the changing political circumstances in Balochistan and acknowledge and appreciate role of the new major stakeholders in the issue. Our national security and ground realities demand to re-think, re-visit, and re-formulate our understanding of Balochistan conflict by keeping in mind these new dynamics for a sustainable conflict-resolution. It is need of the hour to give due respect and consideration to all forces in Balochistan to strike a pragmatic balance among different stakeholders. Just holding talks with foreign-funded elements and pushing in isolation to patriot factions in Balochistan will not serve the purpose and will turn the things from bad to worse. It will simply mean that we have given our national fate, destiny and pride in hands of those who, in collusion with their foreign masters, want to destabilise Pakistan. If such mindset persists and continues to flourish, God forbid there may be times when no one from Balochistan dares to take name of Pakistan, let alone standing against its enemies. Today, the people of Balochistan denounce these militant groups and stand united to fight them. The people of Balochistan only deserve due share in the power structure of the federation. They must be fully supported to live in peace and harmony, and continue participating in prosperity and well-being of Pakistan.

Follow Us On Twitter