07
January

عقل بمقابلہ عشق

تحریر: یاسر پیرزادہ

حسن البصری اپنے شاگردوں کو مسجد میں لیکچر دے رہے تھے لیکچر اپنے اختتام کو تھا کہ اچانک ایک طالب علم نے عجیب ساسوال داغ دیا ۔کہنے لگا: ’’استاد محترم! ہمارے ہاں ایک جماعت ایسی پیدا ہو چکی ہے جس کا ماننا ہے کہ گناہ کبیرہ کرنے والا شخص دائرہ اسلام سے خارج ہو جاتا ہے جبکہ دوسری طرف لوگوں کا ایک گروہ ایسا بھی ہے جو یہ کہتا ہے کہ گناہ کبیرہ کا مرتکب ہونے والے کے لئے بھی نجات کا دروازہ کھلا ہے۔ ان کی دلیل یہ ہے کہ جیسے کسی کافر کی عبادت اسے کوئی فائدہ نہیں پہنچا سکتی اسی طرح کسی مسلمان کا گناہ اسے کوئی ایسا نقصان نہیں پہنچا سکتا جس کی تلافی نہ ہوسکے ‘آپ کی رائے میں سچائی کا راستہ کیا ہے ؟‘‘اس سے پہلے کہ حسن البصری جواب دیتے ‘حاضرین میں سے ایک نوجوان اٹھا اور بولا:’’گناہ کبیرہ کا مرتکب ہونے والا شخص ایمان کے دائرے سے باہر سمجھا جائے گااور نہ ہی وہ سچا مسلمان مانا جائے گا‘اسے ایمان اور کفر کے درمیان کی ایک ’’منزل‘‘ میں رکھا جائے گا ۔‘‘ یہ کہنے کے بعد وہ نوجوا ن مسجد کے دوسرے سرے کی جانب گیا اور وہاں موجود طلبا کو اپنا نقطہ نظر سمجھانے لگا۔ نوجوان کا نام واصل ابن عطا تھا۔حسن البصری نے ایک نگاہ اس کی جانب ڈالی اور بولے ’’ یہ شخص ہم میں سے نکل گیا‘‘۔اس وقت سے واصل ابن عطا اور ان کے پیروکاروں کو ’’معتزلین‘‘کہا جاتا ہے ‘ واصل ابن عطا ’’المعتزلہ‘‘ تحریک کا بانی ہے۔

 

یہ شخص بلا کا ذہین تھا ‘ اس نے مذہب کو عقلی بنیاد پر پرکھنے کی روایت ڈالی اور دقیق دینی اور فلسفیانہ موضوعات پر ایسی رائے دی جس نے عام مسلمان کو بے حد متاثر کیا ۔واصل کی گردن ذرا لمبی تھی جسے دیکھ کر عمر ابن عبید نے ایک مرتبہ کہا تھا کہ ’’ایسی لمبی گردن والے شخص میں کوئی خیر نہیں ہو سکتی۔‘‘واصل عربی کا حرف ’’ر‘‘ نہیں بول سکتا تھا لہٰذا گفتگو میں اس بات کاخاص خیال رکھتا کہ زبان سے کوئی ایسا لفظ نہ پھسل جائے جس میں ’’ر‘‘ آتا ہو‘ مگر اس کے باوجود اس قدر روانی سے بولتاکہ سننے والے دنگ رہ جاتے۔اس نے ایک ضخیم مقالہ بھی تحریر کیا مگر اس پورے مقالے میں کہیں ایک جگہ بھی ’’ر‘‘ کا استعمال نہیں کیا۔واصل کی عقلیت پسندی اس کے عقائد میں جا بجا جھلکتی ہے۔مثلاً انسان کی مجبوری و مختاری کے مسئلے پر وہ اپنی رائے یوں دیتا ہے کہ خدا عاقل اور انصاف پسند ہے ‘شر اور نا انصافی اس کی صفات میں شامل کی ہی نہیں جا سکتیں ‘اس بات کا جواز کیسے ممکن ہے کہ وہ اپنی مخلوق کو جس بات کا حکم دے اس کی مرضی اس کے بر عکس ہو‘ لہٰذا خیر اور شر‘کفر و الحاد‘ فرمانبرداری اور گناہ اس کی مخلوق کے اعمال ہیں ‘یعنی مخلوق ہی اپنے اعمال کی خالق و مختارہے لہٰذا انہی کی بنیاد پر اسے سزا و جزا کا حقدار ٹھہرایا جائے گا‘یہ ناممکن ہے کہ غلام کو آقا کی طرف سے کوئی ایسا حکم بجا لانے کو کہا جائے جو اس کے بس سے باہر ہو‘بندے کو وہی کرنے کو کہا جاتا ہے جس کی وہ استطاعت رکھتا ہے۔ اسلامی تاریخ کے عظیم مفکر ابن حزم نے واصل کے ان خیالات کے بارے میں کہا تھا کہ معتزلین نے انسان کی مجبوری و مختاری کے مسئلے پر نہایت عمدہ کام کیا ہے ‘اگر انسان کو اپنے معاملات میں کلی طور پر مختار مان لیا جائے تو شریعت کی عمارت کا وجود قائم نہیں رہ سکتا۔

 

معتزلین کی عقلیت پسندی میں بظاہر بڑی کشش نظر آتی ہے مگر ان کے ناقدین کی رائے میں ان سے یہ غلطی ہوئی کہ انہوں نے ان تمام تصورات کو رد کر دیا جو عقل کے پیمانے میں سموتے نہیں تھے ۔وہ یہ بات نظر انداز کر گئے کہ عقل انسانی بھی اسی طرح خدا کا ایک تحفہ ہے جیسے انسان کو ودیعت کی گئیں دیگر حسیات۔جس طرح انسان کے دیگر ذرائع علم کی اپنی حدود ہیں اسی طرح عقل کی بھی کچھ حدود ہیں اور ضروری نہیں کہ آفاقی سچائی عقل سے ہی سمجھ میں آ جائے۔ بقول شیکسپئیر :

"There are more things in heavan and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy"

 

عباسی حکمرانوں ‘خاص طور سے خلیفہ مامون الرشید ‘نے معتزلین کی کافی سرپرستی کی اور عقلیت پسندی کو عوامی سطح پر روشناس کروایا۔معتزلین سچائی اور حقیقت کو محض عقل کی کسوٹی

پر ہی پرکھنے پر مصر رہے جس کا نتیجہ یہ نکلا کہ انہوں نے ایمان کوبھی خالصتاً فلسفے کے انداز میں جانچنا شروع کر دیا۔ انہوں نے یہ حقیقت یکسر بھلا دی کہ مذہب کے بنیادی عقائد کو کبھی بھی عملاً منطقی اعتبار سے جانچا نہیں جا سکتااور نہ ہی ان کا عقلی ثبوت مہیا کیا جا سکتا ہے ۔مذہب کے بنیادی عقائد کا تعلق چندفوق الادراک سچائیوں سے ہے جنہیں پہلے ہمیں وحی کی بنیادپر ماننا پڑے گا ‘اس کے بعد انسانی عقل کی حدود شروع ہوں گی۔ اگر ہم ہر عقیدے کو ہی عقل کی کسوٹی پر جانچیں گے تو یہ کسوٹی اس کے لئے درست نہیں ہوگی کیونکہ عقل ایمان کا احاطہ کرنے سے قاصر ہے ۔اس ضمن میں کانٹ کی دلیل دلچسپ ہے۔ ‘کانٹ کے زمانے میں چرچ خدا کے بیٹے کا وجود ثابت کرنے کے لئے عقلی دلائل تلاش کر رہا تھا مگر کامیاب نہیں ہو پایا۔کانٹ نے پادریوں کی مشکل حل کر دی۔ اس نے کہا کہ خدا نے انسان کو پیور ریزن دی ہے پیور ریزن ودیعت نہیں کی‘ پریکٹیکل ریزن ہمارے مسائل تو حل کر سکتی ہے مگر خدا کی ذات کا تعلق پیور ریزن سے ہے اور وہ ہمیں نہیں ملی۔

 

عارف اور عالم دونوں ہی سچائی کے راستے تک لے جاتے ہیں مگر عارف کا ذریعہ عرفان ہے جبکہ عالم کا عقل ‘یہ ذرائع درست بھی ہو سکتے ہیں اور غلط بھی۔ مولانا روم کے بقول عقلی استدلال شیطانی بھی ہو سکتا ہے اور رحمانی بھی ‘مگر غلطی کے امکان کے باوجود انسان نے ترقی کی ہے ۔چونکہ یہ دنیا احساسات کی دنیا ہے اس لئے علم کے اس ذریعے کو فوقیت دی جاتی ہے جو عقل پر مبنی ہے ۔دوسری طرف عرفان کا تعلق صرف مذہب سے نہیں بلکہ دنیاوی معاملات میں بھی وجدان سے کام لیا جاتا ہے ‘یہی وجہ ہے کہ بعض اوقات ہم کوئی فیصلہ عقلی اعتبار سے درست معلوم ہونے کے باوجود اس لئے نہیں کرتے کہ دل نہیں مانتا حالانکہ اس کی کوئی عقلی توجیح نہیں ہوتی۔

 

عقل و عشق کے معرکے کی دلچسپ بات یہ ہے کہ ہم وجدان کا قائل ہونے کے لئے بھی بہرحال عقلی دلائل کا ہی سہارا لیتے ہیں‘تاہم اس میں بھی کوئی شک نہیں کہ عقل اور عشق دونوں کی منزل ایک ہی ہے مگر بقو ل اقبال ‘عقل ہمیں دھیرے دھیر ے اس مقام تک لے جاتی ہے جبکہ عشق ایک ہی جست میں تمام منازل پار کر لیتا ہے ‘ اسی لئے روز مرہ زندگی کے فیصلے ہمیں عقل کی رو سے کرنے چاہئیں جبکہ بڑے فیصلے دل سے کرنے چاہئیں ۔وہ مقام کب آتا ہے جب دل سے فیصلہ کرنا ضروری ہوتا ہے ‘اس کا ذکر پھر کبھی۔

نوٹ :اس کالم میں معتزلین کے بارے میں حقائق ‘پروفیسر میر ولی الدین‘ عثمانیہ یونیورسٹی ‘ حیدر آباد دکن‘کے مقالے سے حاصل کئے گئے ہیں۔

مضمون نگار معروف کالم نویس اور تجزیہ نگار ہیں۔

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04
October

Among Heroes

Published in Hilal English

Written By: Capt Ali Ahmed Malik


You never seem normal," looking at his impassive face, Sara said in an inquiring tone.


"Because I don’t fit in your definition of normal," throwing pebbles in the water, gazing at the horizon, with his thoughts at unrest, being at par with the oceanic waves in front, his words disappearing in the sound of splashes, still being the only sound making sense to his fiancée’s ears. He continued "Someday I may meet your standards of being normal", as he sat facing her, "Although that is a rare possibility"


"When are you going to return to my life, rather our life?" eyes wide open, focused ears longing to hear the words that were never coming, she gently pushed her hair blowing in her face due to the Shore wind.


"When my battle scars would heal," it was very evident from the tone that he wasn’t exactly present in the moment.
"Why haven’t they healed already?"
"They aren’t meant to."
"You scare me often."
"Do I?"
"Don’t you see? While I am talking to you I mostly feel that ...."
"That you are talking to the walls."
"Emotionless walls."
"Time, my dear, is the answer."


Gazing at his face with her questioning eyes, she thinks of what she might hear this time as he breaks the silence, "I can’t forget May 13, 2013. We were on the move to reach our igloo before sunrise. It was 0200 hours, six of us, tied together with ropes, battling the harshness of weather, at 19000 feet in minus 35 degrees Celsius outside our windbreaker suits with freezing oxygen rupturing our chests, the blowing wind picking up snow and hitting us hard with it making one or two of us fall every now and then. It was perilous but we were hopeful until....’’ He throws another pebble into water, his face still unreadable, eyes speaking volumes of emotions. She starred at them, wondering what would happen next. He wouldn't speak much but when he did, he wouldn’t let any other sound make any sense to her; waves showing the unrest of ocean, his eyes showing his...


Afraid of what she might hear, she gathered courage to utter, ‘‘What happened there?’’
"We walked on the snow mass, 6 to 8 meters apart tied with ropes, that’s what we soldiers do up there but it isn’t always firm snow. I saw it. The gust of wind struck the one next to me this one time, and imbalanced he fell. As he hit the ground, the snow wasn’t strong enough to sustain the impact. It was a thin layer of ice he was standing upon, which cracked wide open and there he went inside the crevice. Before I could brace myself against the snow, I felt a jerk and followed him through. If it was not for the wits of the ones behind me, I wouldn't be here today.’’ His tone had just turned more magical, she didn’t want him to stop now, although it wasn’t the talk she longed for on this particular day. He continued. "They hit the snow with crampons which is normal practice to cater for such eventualities in the glaciers. Bracing themselves against the snow, they pulled the rope. Luckily, I didn’t go inside deeper, was on the edge and could climb back. My buddy, however, needed to be pulled out. He was 8 meters deeper than me, hanging with the same rope we all were tied with. I made efforts to move out which were successful. It was the resolve which kept us going. We pulled him out. One of his ribs were broken, which was revealed later. He had struck something harder down there or may be it was the jerk he received initially due to the tightened rope. We weren’t even half way to our igloo. It were us, who had to reach the igloo at night to relieve our comrades who were already present there and ready for the move back the next night having completed their tenure up there." Ali looked at the horizon, sun going down among clouds. The sea now becoming peaceful but he isn’t. "In the middle of a place where there are no signs of life, a fallen comrade besides you suffering with pain, others with a dying morale to see him in that condition, looking at each other to do something that would take away the pain. Hopeless yet hopeful eyes starring at you, I can’t tell you how lonely you feel. Imagine the people you never think of living a life without, think of one of them with his head in your lap, groaning, restless and you are helpless. You wait for some miracle to deal with this or wish for being in a dream you would soon wake up from. These moments shape you, whether or not a miracle takes place. When you come out of the situation, you are never the same as you were moments ago."


"What... like... tell me... what happened then," said Sara, failing to utter the right words.
"Some other day perhaps, we should go home now. I have to go meet someone," he said, getting up from the boulders they were sitting on. He always used to say, "Don’t stop me when I have to go. I won’t."


She wished she could just heal his scars, just bring him back to life and stay with him till eternity, in her world... the world he didn’t belong to anymore. He would always tell her, "Soldiers having experienced combat shouldn’t be questioned why they are the way they are." They got up, walked on the shore silently towards parking area where vehicles were parked.

 

amongheroes.jpgWalking on wet sand, hand in hand, gazing at sunset among clouds, contemplating nature, two other worldly souls though together were miles apart. Waves would come every now and then; touching their feet and making them feel the magic of ocean. The melody of quiet air was breathtaking. They walked slowly, occasionally uttering a word, "Winds up there are not quite friendly," he smiled through the words. She also faked one to hide the pain, she knew he wasn’t with her but with his comrades, the ones he always wished more to be with.


"I would be leaving tomorrow," he spoke again.
"I am aware."
"I confess that I am going to miss you."
"Can’t... you stay?," she said, well aware of the answer she was going to receive.
(After a pause) "I just wish I could!"
"We had promised to be together, no matter what happens."
"I remember and own my promises."
"Stopping you would be selfish, I know. I just wish things were different."
"But they aren’t...."
"But, what about me. When would I come to know your depths? Loving a soldier is a terrible mistake they say, I think they are right."
"You think or you want to think like this?" He smiles back.


"Not telling someone who wishes to know every little thing about you, not letting someone heal you as they can’t just see you hurt, leaving them to wait for times that may never come. Isn’t it unfair," she pauses and looks down, "I shouldn’t be saying this," she murmurs.


"You can have my diary, I am somewhere in the entries and blank pages. I will give it to you before leaving. I need not say that I trust you."


A smile rips through her eyes brimming with tears as she says, "You are my favorite mystery; I bet I will crack you one day." Both laugh.
(Two Days Later)


She sat in her room with a diary in her right hand opened across her eyes covered with glasses. She had already opened the entries written in the month of May 2013.


"Naik Ikhtiar Shah has always been one of my bravest soldiers and best companions of this journey to Siachen. His sense of humor, encouraging words to his fellows and his juniors and his dedication towards his military service is something I shall always remember. When I go back from here, I believe I will always cherish my memories of these lifeless glaciers capping Himalayas. Naik Shah was a tall man, measuring more than 6 feet in height. Whenever there was snowfall, I would always see him with a shovel in his hand, removing snow from the door of our igloo at a mid camp where I stayed with him for about a week or so before I could finally move further up. This snow if not removed in time can turn out to be a death trap. If a part of body gets exposed to the same snow, it can result in frostbite which can ultimately result in imputation. Life up here calls for iron nerves."


"He was lying with his head in my lap. Above 19000 feet, in the vast mysterious glaciers offering no mercy to anyone, temperature nearing –50 degrees, cold winds gusting past us, a few among us reciting verses from Holy Quran, wishing for a miracle to rescue us as I could see him fading away in my arms. I have never had such a situation in my life before. Military life can really challenge you in ways you can never expect. A few were rubbing his chest, putting pressure on his chest to make sure he kept breathing. We had no doctors to help him recover. All we had with us were life saving injections and an unparalleled faith in Almighty. We injected him with the hope of keeping his blood circulation active."


"How is he feeling now Ali?," called Capt Irfan, the sub-sector commander, on wireless.
"Sir! He will make it Insha Allah," I replied.
"Be aware of the deteriorating weather, a snow storm is expected soon, you have to make up to your post before first light. All the best."
"Roger sir."
Half-an-hour passed by, feeling like a century. He opened his eyes gently. It was as if life was returning to all of us. I still wonder what would have happened if he hadn’t survived.
"Shah, wake up buddy, lets do it again," his mate, Naik Irfan spoke with a determination.


Shah looked at our faces, most of which were grim by now, however, smiling at their buddy with whom they had already lived so many stories of valor and devotion. I waited for him to show some movement. He lifted himself up with difficulty as I helped, and he hugged me as he got up, "Thank you sir for not giving up on me."


"I am so proud of you Shah! Now brace yourself, you have to reach back to your camp before weather gets worse," I could not utter one more word.


He looked at me, the expression was priceless.
It was his turn to speak, "Irfan, I will lead on the way back."
"You stubborn idiot, obviously you will," Irfan replied smilingly.
"We lifted our packs, the journey of our guides from mid-camp ended here. We were to meet guides coming from our next destination who had to escort us there. While we were helping Shah recover, the guides from our next post had alread reached our location having heard our conversations on wireless. We hugged our buddies, said our goodbyes, waved and moved on."


"Ikhtiar Shah and his comrades made to their camp successfully while we also reached our destination before the first light. I was informed on wireless that he was taken to CMH Skardu the following morning on a helicopter where he was treated for a fractured rib and many bruises. However his life was out of danger. While I write these lines, I am accompanied by a section of soldiers, hailing from different regions of Pakistan, who are up here at Siachen with the sole purpose of serving Pakistan against all odds."


And the mystery started to unfold onto her as she continued to read through the pages. The reason why he was so different started to become clear. His experiences were not that of an ordinary man and so wasn't his courage. Every word she read made her more proud of the man; the soldier of this country, the guardian of this motherland!

 

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26
December

Balochistan: As I see it

Published in Hilal English Jan 2014

Written By: Shahid Ali Khan Baloch

Balochistan is always projected as an area having many problems. For the last decade or so it has turned into a playing field of different regional and global powers. Intelligence agencies of different countries have been using politically and ideologically half-baked, directionless and unemployed Baloch youth for their vested geo-political interests. The Baloch youth, acting under catchy slogans, are used as a fuel in a battle to control major geographical choke points, resource-rich areas and their major possible routes. In addition to logistic and financial help of the foreign actors, the moral and political assistance from few media elements, civil society activists and certain political parties, have placed these foreign funded separatists at a much advantageous position as they have managed to divert public opinion in their favour despite their crimes against national security and common people in Balochistan. These armed groups have mainly focused on soft targets in Baloch-dominated areas to remain alive in news headlines and create problems in Balochistan. Firstly, they started targeting non-Baloch teachers, doctors, engineers and labourers. But when it became harder for them to find anymore such soft target, they switched to Baloch political workers, teachers, doctors and tribal elders. They acted on a simple formula; whoever is not following your political line, or has some personal or tribal clash with you, just go and target him. Once he is targeted, declare him an ISI Agent and claim responsibility of his killing by using a foreign-gifted satellite phone and harass his family and friends. Till 2008, these separatists received a considerable attention from a segment of Baloch political workers, civil society and common masses. But once they started targeting innocent Baloch people because they had faith in Federation of Pakistan or they had tribal or individual differences with these terrorists, the people of Balochistan started to shed away shadows of fear and dared to speak against them in public. With the passage of time the victims of these foreign–funded terrorism started to get united and mobilised. Now, by this time, the people are strong enough to force these elements to vacate certain areas including Quetta, Mastung, Kalat, Dera Bugti, Kohlu and Khuzdar.

At present, one can safely claim that only pro-federation majority is the only stakeholders in Balochistan issue. Anti-state camp is represented by Hairbiyaar Marri, Brahamdagh Bugti, Dr. Allah Nazar and Javed Mengal. While pro-state camp is led by Sarfraz Bugti, Shafique Mengal and Siraj Raisani. The cause of concern here is to unfold the fact that our so-called independent media, civil society and political parties, following the traditional rhetoric are denying to accept existence of the important pro-Pakistan stakeholders in Balochistan. It is about time that they should also change their prejudiced lenses and should acknowledge the role, contribution and importance of these pro-federation Baloch figures fighting disgruntled elements in Balochistan. Irony of fact is that they are targeted by anti-state elements and our so-called independent media and vibrant civil society, because they are pro-Pakistan. In today's media activism, one hardly finds representation of the community which is torch-bearer of resistance against those who are resisting writ of the state in Balochistan. In the most cases, we see either nationalists or least bothered federalists speaking their brand of Balochistan conflict.

Amid this whole scenario, if one wants to move towards a serious and genuine conflict analysis in Balochistan, he needs to be mindful of the fact that it is not Balochistan of 1960s and 1970s when just few tribal nawabs (chieftains) were the only stakeholders. A major difference between present situation and past movements is the active role of youth. In majority of cases, small groups of youth operate independently under a loose command. In such a situation, they get influenced by petty local considerations and end up in using this foreign-funded political infrastructure to settle their non-political individual issues. Due to leadership role of youngsters at this level, a clear manifestation of reactionary and immature decision-making has been noticed in militant groups. Killing of innocent people including teachers and doctors, destroying electricity polls and targeting relief activities during recent Awaran earthquake are examples of the immature decision-making. Such policies on one hand have resulted in complete isolation of militants and on other hand have paved the way for emergence of a strong reaction against these terrorists from within the Baloch society. If we analyse the main targets of these armed groups during past three four years, it will become evident that in more than 70% cases, they have targeted people associated with Sarfaraz Bugti, Shafique Mengal or Siraj Raisani. So, this situation boils down to a point that if we speak of major stakeholders of present conflict within boundries of Pakistan, these are three, namely: Pakistani Government, Baloch militants and their pro-state Baloch opponents in Balochistan. So, if there is any attempt of reconciliation excluding these pro-state activists, it will prove ephemeral and will burst into pieces like a bubble and may lead to law and order situation in the province. Once weaken, these pro-federation elements will be easily targeted by the militants.

So, the need of the hour and writing on the wall requires us to open our minds and eyes to see the changing political circumstances in Balochistan and acknowledge and appreciate role of the new major stakeholders in the issue. Our national security and ground realities demand to re-think, re-visit, and re-formulate our understanding of Balochistan conflict by keeping in mind these new dynamics for a sustainable conflict-resolution. It is need of the hour to give due respect and consideration to all forces in Balochistan to strike a pragmatic balance among different stakeholders. Just holding talks with foreign-funded elements and pushing in isolation to patriot factions in Balochistan will not serve the purpose and will turn the things from bad to worse. It will simply mean that we have given our national fate, destiny and pride in hands of those who, in collusion with their foreign masters, want to destabilise Pakistan. If such mindset persists and continues to flourish, God forbid there may be times when no one from Balochistan dares to take name of Pakistan, let alone standing against its enemies. Today, the people of Balochistan denounce these militant groups and stand united to fight them. The people of Balochistan only deserve due share in the power structure of the federation. They must be fully supported to live in peace and harmony, and continue participating in prosperity and well-being of Pakistan.

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