Written By: Dr. Fariha Zeeshan

Improving health by adopting healthy living habits generally can't happen overnight, but there's never any reason not to start making healthy changes in life. Any one person's fitness routine will differ from another's based on the condition of the person, including his or her weight, health, calorie-intake, age, gender, lifestyle, stress level, and routine. Regular exercise and the consumption of a healthy diet can lead to a host of benefits, including increased energy, happiness, health with long life. Exercise and diet are pivotal to determine a person's overall health, and making these both part of your lifestyle can lead to a dramatic difference in how you look and feel. Good dietary habits greatly enhance the ability to perform at maximum potential. Eating variety of foods and maintaining adequate energy balance are basic guidelines for a healthy diet. For soldiers to get enough energy from the food they eat and to obtain the variety of foods needed for nutritional balance, they normally eat three meals a day. Even snacking between meals can contribute to good nutrition if the right foods are eaten. Since a soldier's level of physical fitness has a direct impact on his or her combat readiness, soldier must remain mentally and physically fit. Not only are physically fit soldiers essential to the Army, they will have enjoyable and productive lives. Physical fitness, which is important for a successful career in the Army, is defined as the ability to function effectively in physical work, training, and other activities, while still having enough energy left over to handle any emergencies that may arise. In addition to exercise, proper nutrition and hydration also play a major part in maintaining complete fitness. Good dietary habits greatly enhance your ability to perform at your maximum potential and when a full prepared meal is not available, the army provides soldiers with MREs (Meals, Ready-to-Eat) that contain everything a soldier needs to stay energetic. Hydration (Water – It's What the Body Needs) Soldiers often fail to drink enough water, especially when training in the heat. Water is an essential nutrient that is critical in reaching your best physical performance. It is also important for good health as it plays a vital role in maintaining normal body temperature. The evaporation of sweat helps cool the body during exercise, so water lost through sweating must be replaced because lack of hydration can lead to poor performance and possible injury. Sweat consists primarily of water with small quantities of minerals like sodium. Cool and plain water is the best drink to replace the fluid lost as sweat. Experts recommend drinking of water before, during, and after exercise to prevent dehydration and help enhance performance. During prolonged periods of strenuous exercise – 1.5 hours or more – you can benefit from periodically drinking sports drinks with a concentration of 5 to 10 per cent carbohydrate. Soldiers on extended route marches can also benefit from drinking these types of glucose-containing beverages. During intense training, sports drinks can provide a source of carbohydrate for working muscles. A Healthy Diet: Making Healthy Choices Another dietary guideline is to consume enough calories to meet your energy needs. Proper weight is maintained as long as the body is in energy balance, or when the number of calories used equals the number of calories consumed. The following guidelines may help build lean muscle mass and create more energy. • Eat high protein, low fat items such as: fish, beans, whole wheat pasta, egg whites, skimmed milk, and low fat yogurt. Avoid items such as: fried things, high fat meat, egg yolks, and whole milk. • For a good source of vitamins eat a diet rich in raw or steamed vegetables, green leafy romaine, whole grain breads, and fruits with skin. Avoid fried vegetables, iceberg lettuce (no nutrients), white bread, and canned fruits in syrup. • Good fats versus bad fats: Try to choose non-trans fat bread spreads and heart healthy margarine. Cook with olive oil or sunflower oil, omit or use less lard and meat fat. Limit or omit creamy salad dressings high in fat content, cookies, cakes, pies, and pastry goods. Furthermore, avoiding fast food is always a good way to help cut down on your fat intake. 6 Foods and Drinks for Exercising Exercise is the key to stay fit. But if you know that what you eat and drink can help you reach your fitness goals faster. By feeding your body the right nutrients, you can ensure it is getting the raw materials it needs to help you power through your workout and build and repair muscle afterward. Start your exercise programme with these eight essential food and drinks. Downing 12 ounces of coffee an hour before you hit the gym or track can help you workout longer and boost your endurance. It can also ease exercise-related aches and pains. A study of University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign during 2009 found that men who received a jolt of caffeine an hour before intense bicycling reported less muscle pain during their workout than a similar group of cyclists who went caffeine free. Worried that cup of joe will dehydrate you? Don't be. The American College of Sports Medicine states that caffeine isn't an issue when it comes to hydration. These mollusks are loaded with iron needed to build hemoglobin, which delivers oxygen throughout your body. Skimp on this crucial mineral and you might not have the energy to drag yourself to the gym. Or, when you do, you'll feel it. When working muscles don't get the oxygen they need, they pump out lactic acid causing you to tire quickly. It may sound counter intuitive but the more intensely you exercise the more damaging free radicals your body produces. Enter almonds. They're a top source of antioxidants like flavonoids, phenolic acids, and vitamin E – all of which protect against harmful free radicals. In fact, cyclists who ate 60 almonds a day before meals for four weeks boosted their antioxidant capacity by 43 per cent according to a study presented at the 2009 annual meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine. They also increased their trial time distance by 5 per cent too. Skip the energy bar and fuel up with a small box of raisins instead. They're just as portable as an energy bar yet deliver much more like energy-boosting carbs and potassium, one of the most underrated sports nutrients around. Potassium naturally maintains fluid balance helping to prevent dehydration as well as muscle cramps. But when you workout and sweat, you loose it. Conveniently, a small box of raisins provides more than 300 milligrams of this mighty mineral, nearly as much as you'd get from a small banana. Think you need a sports drink during, or after, exercise? Not if you're hoofing it for less than 60 minutes according to the American Dietetic Association's Sports, Cardiovascular and Wellness Dietetic Practice Group. Unless you work out an hour or more – or are an extremely heavy sweater – good old H2O (water) is the perfect hydration drink. The best way to make sure you're getting enough fluids: weigh yourself before and after exercise. Then drink two and a half cups of fluid for every pound you've lost. If you're pumping, iron salmon could make you stronger. With 22 grams of high quality protein per three ounces, this smart catch provides the building blocks, your body needs to re-synthesize muscle tissue after a tough workout. And that's not all. Salmon is also nature's number one source of vitamin D, a nutrient that many of us don't get enough of. That can make it harder to build muscle according to a 2010 Osteoporosis International study which links low vitamin D levels to decreased muscle strength. The writer is a reputed clinical dietitian at The Aga Khan University Hospital. She has done her M.Sc in Nutrition and her specialty includes General Nutrition, Gastroenterology, General Medicine, and Endocrinology. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


طلاق کے بعد کیا ہوتا ہے

تحریر: یاسر پیرزادہ

ایک سینئر افسر کا دفتر تھا‘ میں اور میری ایک کولیگ میٹنگ کے لئے موجود تھے‘ اچانک دفتر میں ایک مزید سینئر افسر داخل ہوئے‘ انہیں دیکھ سب احتراماً کھڑے ہوگئے۔ موصوف کا اپنے بارے میں خیال تھا کہ ان کی شخصیت میں راجیش کھنہ جھلکتا ہے‘ اسی لئے اکثر اوقات ان کے پہناوے بھی ویسے ہوتے۔ اس روز بھی موصوف کسی قبررسیدہ ہیرو کے انداز میں سگریٹ کے کش لیتے ہوئے کرسی پر براجمان ہوئے‘ میٹنگ کی کارروائی چند لمحوں کے لئے رک گئی‘ انہوں نے ایک نظر مجھ پر ڈالی اور پھر نظر بھر کر میری کولیگ کی طرف دیکھا اور پھر آنکھوں کو نیم وا کرتے ہوئے پوچھا’’آپ کو پہلے کبھی نہیں دیکھا‘ آپ کس کامن سے ہیں؟‘‘ میری کولیگ نے سپاٹ لہجے میں جواب دیا’’سر‘ میں 1996 بیچ کی ہوں ۔‘‘ اس پر موصوف نے خا لصتاً تماش بینی کے انداز میں آنکھوں کو گھمایا اور بولے ’’کمال ہے‘ آپ بہت ینگ لگتی ہیں ۔‘‘ یہ سن کر میری کولیگ نے کسی قسم کا تاثر دیئے بغیر فائلیں اٹھائیں‘ اپنے افسر سے اجازت مانگی اور دفتر سے نکل گئی۔

جس خاتون افسر کی میں بات کررہا ہوں ‘وہ ایک ذہین اور قابل عورت ہے‘ اپنے کام سے کام رکھتی ہے‘ اچھے گھرانے سے تعلق ہے‘ ایک محکمے میں اعلیٰ افسر ہے‘ نہایت باوقار انداز میں دفتر کاکام کرتی ہے‘ غیر ضروری طور پر خوش مزاج ہے نہ خشک مزاج‘ ایماندار بھی ہے اور فرض شناس بھی۔ اس کے ساتھ پیش آنے والا یہ واقعہ بظاہر معمولی نوعیت کا ہے‘ لیکن یہ اس بے بسی کا اظہار ہے جو ہمارے معاشرے میں عورت کے مقدر میں لکھ دی گئی ہے‘ چاہے وہ کتنی بھی آزاد اور خود مختار کیوں نہ ہوجائے۔ ایک عرصے تک ہم یہ سمجھتے رہے (اور اب یہ بھی سمجھتے ہیں) کہ ہمارے ہاں عورتوں کو جو حقوق میسر ہیں وہ مغربی ممالک میں بھی نہیں اور ثبوت کے طور پر ہم خود کو باپ‘ شوہر اور بیٹے کے مثالی روپ میں پیش کرتے ہیں جبکہ مغرب میں عورت کو ہم صرف ایک ہی روپ میں دیکھتے ہیں اور وہ بھی غیر اخلاقی فلموں میں اور یوں جھٹ سے نتیجہ اخذ کرلیتے ہیں کہ ہمارے ہاں عورت کی عزت کہیں زیادہ ہے۔


tlaqkbaasd.jpgہمارے ہاں عورتوں کی بے بسی کے تین درجے ہیں‘ پہلے درجے میں وہ عورتیں ہیں جو مکمل طور پر مرد کے تابع ہیں‘ ان کا تعلق نچلے طبقے سے بھی ہو سکتا ہے اور جاگیر دار کلاس سے بھی‘ ان کی تمام عمر مرد کی محتاجی میں بسر ہوتی ہے کیونکہ ان کے پاس ڈھنگ کی ڈگری ہوتی ہے نہ کوئی ہنر‘ ان کی زندگی کا ا نحصار مرد کی خوشنودی پر ہوتاہے‘ اگر مرد چاہے تو انہیں رکھے نہ چاہے تو اچانک صبح اُٹھ کر طلاق کا کاغذ ان کے منہ پر دے مارے‘ اُس کے بعد وہ عورت دربدر کی ٹھوکریں کھانے کے لئے زندہ رہے گی۔ ہاں‘ اگر اس کا تعلق ذرا متمول طبقے سے ہو تو شائد اس کی مالی مشکلات کم ہوجائیں مگر اس سفاک معاشرے میں کسی مرد کے نام کی تختی کے بغیر زندگی گزارنا کس قدر جو کھم کا کام ہے‘ یہ اندازہ ہم مردوں کو کبھی ہو ہی نہیں سکتا‘ بالکل اس پنجابی سنی العقیدہ شخص کی طرح جس کے ذہن میں کبھی یہ تصور نہیں آسکتا کہ ملک میں وہ لوگ کیسے جیتے ہیں جن کا تعلق اقلیت سے ہو اور وہ کسی پسماندہ علاقے میں بستے ہوں

دوسری کیٹیگری میں وہ عورتیں آتی ہیں جو آزاد ہیں‘ پڑھی لکھی ہیں‘ اچھی ملازمت کرتی ہیں یا گھر بار چلاتی ہیں‘ بظاہر یہ عورتیں مرد کی محتاج نہیں لیکن اگر انہیں ایکتنگ نظر شوہر مل جائے تو ان کی زندگی اجیرن ہو جاتی ہے‘ شوہر سے طلاق کا فیصلہ ہمارے جیسے معاشروں میں آسان نہیں ہوتا‘ اور اگر کوئی عورت ہمت کرکے یہ فیصلہ کرلے تو اس صورت میں اس کے پاس واپس میکے جانے کا آپشن نہ ہونے کے برابر ہوتاہے۔ ماں باپ لڑکی کو بیاہنے کے بعد سمجھتے ہیں کہ اب ان کی ذمہ داری ختم‘ شادی میں چونکہ جہیز دے دیا اس لئے جائیداد میں حصہ دینے کی کوئی ضرورت نہیں‘ حیرت ہے یہ کلیہ بیٹوں پر لاگونہیں ہوتا‘ بیٹا اگر کاروبار میں چالیس پچاس لاکھ لگا دے تو بھی جائیداد کے اپنے حصے کا حقدار ٹھہرے گا جبکہ بیٹی سے لکھوا لیا جاتا ہے کہ وہ بھائیوں کے حق میں دستبردارہوتی ہے ! اور یوں بھی طلاق کے بعد اس گھر میں واپس جانا قریباً ناممکن ہوجاتا ہے جہاں بھائیوں کی بیویاں ڈیرے جمالیتی ہیں۔

تیسری کیٹیگری میں وہ عورتیں ہیں جو خود کو مرد کے شکنجے سے آزاد کرنے میں کامیاب ہیں‘ وہ پُراعتماد ہیں‘ پڑھی لکھی ہیں اور ان کے پاس ایسا ہنر اعلیٰ ڈگری یا اپنا کاروبار ہے جس کی مدد سے وہ بغیر کسی پریشانی کے اپنی زندگی پُرآسائش انداز میں گزار سکتی ہیں۔ اگر ان کا شوہر انسان کا بچہ ہو تو بہت اچھی بات ہے اور اگر نہ ہو تو وہ بغیر کسی جھنجھٹ کے اس سے چھٹکارا پا کر بھی اپنی زندگی گزار سکتی ہیں‘ انہیں میکے کی ضرورت ہے نہ بھائیوں کی مدد کی کیونکہ انہوں نے زندگی میں کامیابی پالی ہے‘ اب وہ کسی کی محتاج نہیں۔ ہمارے ہاں ایسی عورتوں کی تعداد فی الحال بہت کم ہے‘ تاہم ان عورتوں کے دو مسائل ہیں‘ پہلا حد سے زیادہ خود اعتمادی کی وجہ سے بعض اوقات یہ اپنے شوہر کو زچ کردیتی ہیں اور یوں خواہ مخواہ اپنی ازدواجی زندگی کو مشکل میں بنا دیتی ہیں۔ دوسرا مسئلہ ان کی آزاد خیالی ہے جس کی بنا پر وہ ان اقدار کو بھی خاطر میں نہیں لاتیں جوکسی بھی عورت کی پروقار شخصیت کے لئے ضروری ہیں۔ آزادی کامطلب ہمارے ہاں یہ فرض کرلیا گیا ہے کہ جب تک عورت مرد سے گلے لگ کر نہیں ملے گی‘ سگریٹ نہیں سلگائے گی اور مکمل مغربی لباس نہیں پہنے گی اس وقت تک اُسے آزاد نہیں کہا جاسکتا۔ حالانکہ عورت کی آزادی کا مطلب یہ بھی ہوسکتا ہے کہ وہ اپنی زندگی کے فیصلوں میں مرد کی محتاج نہیں اور یوں حجاب میں لپٹی ایک عورت بھی پُراعتماد اور آزاد ہوسکتی ہے۔

ایک زمانے میں بک سٹورز پر جس قسم کی کتابیں دستیاب ہوتی تھیں وہ شادی کے مسائل سے معلق ہوا کرتی تھیں۔ یہ تو میں نہیں جانتا کہ ان کتابوں کی کیا افادیت تھی تاہم جس کتاب کی ہمارے معاشرے کو ضرورت ہے وہ ہے ’’ طلاق کے بعد کیا ہوتا ہے؟‘‘ کیونکہ ہم جس سفاک معاشرے میں سانس لے رہے ہیں وہاں عورتیں شادی کے بعد صرف ایک ہی صورت میں خوش رہ سکتی ہیں کہ ان کے شوہر کم ’’خبیث‘‘ ہوں یا وہ خود سمجھدار ہوں اور اگر ایسا نہ ہو تو طلاق کے بعد ایسی عورتوں کے ساتھ کیا ہوتا ہے‘ یہ سمجھنے کے لئے ضروری ہے کہ کچھ مردوں کو عورتوں کا میک اپ کرکے معاشرے میں پھینک دیا جائے اور کہاجائے کہ ایک باعزت زندگی گزار کر دکھاؤ۔ یقیناً مردوں کو یہ باتیں آسانی سے ہضم نہیں ہوں گی‘ اس کی وجہ وہی کہ ہم پسے ہوئے طبقے سے تعلق رکھنے والی کسی بھی مخلوق کی جگہ خود کو رکھ کر نہیں سوچتے۔ جو حضرات اپنے آپ کو بے حد مہربان ‘ عادل اور شفیق شوہر سمجھتے ہیں‘ اگر ان سے کہا جائے کہ کیا وہ خود کو اپنی بیوی کی جگہ رکھ کر زندگی گزارنے کے لئے تیار ہیں جبکہ ان کی بیوی مہربان‘ عادل اور شفیق خاوند کا روپ دھار لے؟ اس کا جواب جاننے کے لئے کسی جوتشی کی ضرورت نہیں‘ جو اب ہم مردوں کو بخوبی معلوم ہے!!

مضمون نگار معروف کالم نویس اور تجزیہ نگار ہیں۔

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Into the Snake Pit

Written By: Nadeem F. Paracha

The Pakistan cricket team hasn’t played a Test match against India since 2006. India considers Pakistan to be an unsafe place to tour and has often accused Pakistan of facilitating ‘terrorism’ in Kashmir. Pakistan accuses India of the same, especially after capturing an Indian spy in 2016 who confessed of funding and facilitating terrorist groups in Balochistan and Karachi.

India’s concern that Pakistan is unsafe for cricket is ironic because never has any Indian cricket squad been threatened with violence in Pakistan; whereas it was in India that the Pakistani cricketers were threatened in 1999, 2013 and then again during the 2016 T20 World Cup held there.

One of the most prominent examples in this respect stretches back to Pakistan’s 1999 tour of India where it played 3 Test matches. This was Pakistan’s first Test tour of India after 1987. The relations between the two countries had nosedived in 1998 when both the governments conducted multiple nuclear tests.

In January 1999, a 16-men-squad captained by Wasim Akram landed in New Delhi. The players had not even left the city’s Indira Gandhi Airport when reports of a possible attack on the team’s hotel began to circulate. Newspapers had earlier quoted some members of a Hindu nationalist group in Delhi who said they would storm the hotel where the Pakistani players were to stay and put them back on a plane to Pakistan.

Even though the players managed to make it to the hotel, Shiv Sena activists entered the stadium in Delhi (which was to host the second Test) and dug up the pitch, destroying it completely. Then as the Pakistani players flew to Chennai to play the first game, a Hindu nationalist outfit asked the spectators to stay away from the game because they were going to release hundreds of poisonous snakes in the stands.

After the police closely inspected the stands, the Pakistan’s squad reached Chennai’s Chidambaram Stadium to play the team’s first Test match in India after 11 years. The stands were packed with people, even though security personnel could be seen on the concrete gables above the stands and outside Pakistan team’s dressing room.

The pitch had some grass on it but seemed good for batting. Akram won the toss and elected to bat. Saeed Anwar and Shahid Afridi opened the batting for Pakistan. But with the score at 32, Afridi was squared up by a zippy Srinath out-swinger and caught by Ganguly at first slip. At 41 Pakistan lost Anwar and then quickly collapsed to 91 for 5.

Yousaf Youhana (later Muhammad Yousaf) and wicket-keeper Moin Khan stabled things a bit for the tourists and took the score to 154 when Yousaf was trapped LBW. Moin was joined by Akram and both pushed the score to 214 before India managed to dislodge Moin for a gritty 60. However, Pakistan were eventually bundled out for just 238 an hour before the close of the first day’s play. In this hour Indian openers struck a quick 48.

Pakistan got its first breakthrough in the first session of the second day’s play when Akram removed the stylish Laxman with the score at 67. 67 for 1 soon became 71 for 2 when Akram also removed the second opener, Sadagoppan Ramesh. Almost immediately, prodigious off-spinner Saqlain Mushtaq got the prized wicket of Sachin Tendulkar, caught by Saleem Malik. India was now tottering at 72 for 3. Azharuddin went at 103 but Dravid and Ganguly managed to stem the rot and pushed the score past 150 when Dravid fell, padding up to a straight one from Saqlain.

Ganguly’s fifty and some last minute hitting from Sunil Joshi helped India reach 254 (all out), gaining a 26 runs lead. Saqlain picked up five wickets. In its second innings, Pakistan lost Saeed Anwar early and at the end of the second day’s play Pakistan were 34 for 1, just 8 runs ahead.

After the day’s play Akram was quoted by Indian newspapers as saying that Pakistani players were still receiving threats of violence but the team had decided to just concentrate on playing cricket. On day 3 of the Test, Ijaz Ahmed was sent packing very early but Inzamam-ul-Haq and the 20-year-old Shahid Afridi added a quick-fire 92 for the fourth wicket, both sprinting past their fifties in style.

With the score at 139, Inzamam fell but Afridi continued to score freely. He soon posted his first ever Test century. But when Afridi lost his wicket with the score at 279, rest of the batting collapsed. Pakistan were all out for 286. India had 271 to chase with two days of the Test remaining. Now favorites to win the Test, India’s chase began disastrously. Rippers from Akram’s fellow fast bowler Waqar Younus removed the Indian openers cheaply. At the close of the third day’s play, India were reeling at 40 for 2. On day 4, Pakistan reduced India to 82 for 5 by lunch. The Pakistani players were jubilant and enjoyed their lunch. But Akram told a BBC reporter that the political and sporting pressure on his men and him was immense. But now they were sensing a win.

However, after the lunch break, as Tendulkar and Mongia went about repairing India’s innings, Pakistan began to slightly panic. The pair first took India past 150 and then 200. Soon, India just needed 52 to win with five wickets still in hand.

Tendulkar was playing brilliantly; middling the ball and making the Pakistani bowlers (suddenly) look rather ordinary. He quickly reached his century. Mongia began playing his shots as well but with the score at 218 he tried to loft Akram out of the ground but only managed to sky the ball towards Waqar who ran in and held the most important catch at mid-off.

Joshi came in and just blocked, letting a Tendulkar do all the scoring. The pair took the score past 250. Then at 254 India just needed 16 to win and it still had four wickets in hand. Surely, Pakistan was staring at defeat now? It seemed that way until Tendulkar tried to lift Saqlain over mid-on for a boundary. The ball seemed to hang high in the air for ages. Akram ran in and placed himself underneath it and cupped it successfully. A deafening silence descended over the packed stands.

Just two runs later, Pakistan grabbed another two quick wickets, leaving India 14 to get and with just one wicket in hand. The tables were being turned. Srinath and Prasad added two runs and India now needed 12. But Saqlain produced a jumpy off-break to Srinath which the batsman went back to defend. He was successful, but the ball hit the ground and rolled back to hit the stumps. Pakistan won.

It was the most esthetic victory for a team under threat of violence. Even though Pakistan lost in Delhi it came back to post a win in Kolkata. Pakistan’s manager, Shahryar Khan later wrote that this was the tensest and most stressful series he had ever been a part of. He added that relations between the two teams were cordial but the crowds (especially in Delhi and Kolkata) were hostile and threats of violence from Hindu nationalists never stopped. But Pakistan managed to come out the better side.


The writer is a Pakistani journalist, cultural critic and satirist. He is the author of a detailed book on Pakistan’s ideological, political & social history, called ‘End of the Past.’

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