Inflation and Price Control Management

Written By: Asad Elahi

Inflation is defined as the rate at which the general price level of goods and services is rising, causing purchasing power to fall. This is different from a rise and fall in the price of a particular good or service. Inflation occurs when most prices are rising by some degree across the whole economy. According to Gardner Ackley “A persistent and appreciable rise in the general level of prices is called inflation”. Inflation is broadly classified as 'demand pull inflation' and 'cost push inflation'.

Cost-push inflation basically means that prices have been "pushed up" by increases in costs of any of the four factors of production (labour, capital, land or entrepreneurship) when companies are already running at full production capacity. With higher production costs and productivity maximized, companies cannot maintain profit margins by producing the same amounts of goods and services. As a result, the increased costs are passed on to consumers, causing a rise in the general price level.

Demand pull inflation occurs when there is an increase in aggregate demand, categorized by the four sections of the economy viz, households, businesses, governments and foreign buyers. When these four sectors concurrently want to purchase more output than the economy can produce, they compete to purchase limited amounts of goods and services. Buyers in essence "bid prices up” causing inflation. This excessive demand is also referred to as "too much money too few goods”. Thus inflation is generally associated with an abnormal increase in the quantity of money resulting in abnormal rise in prices.

Price changes in Pakistan are computed by the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics through the indices namely Consumer Price Index (CPI), Sensitive Price Indicator (SPI) and Whole Sale Price Index (WPI). CPI measures changes in the cost of buying a representative fixed basket of 487 goods and services, selected through a family budget survey, consumed by inhabitants. Prices are collected through nearly 148,000 quotations in 76 representative markets in 40 towns/cities. CPI is currently worked out with variations from base year 2007-08 on overall basis as well as in categories of population in five income quintiles i.e. up to Rs. 8000, Rs. 8000-12000, Rs. 12000-18000, Rs. 18000-35000 and above Rs. 35000. CPI is used in economic policy formulation, cost escalation in business applications and wage adjustment. Average weight of food and non-alcoholic beverages group and housing, electricity, gas and other fuels of goods and services constitute 43.24% and 27.72% respectively.

The State Bank of Pakistan uses Core Inflation and Trimmed Mean Core Inflation figures for its monetary policy. Core inflation is worked out by excluding prices of food and energy from CPI as these administered or are volatile. Trimmed mean is also a measure of core inflation worked out by excluding changes in items in CPI that rank amongst the smallest and largest.

SPI is computed on weekly basis to assess the price movements of essential movements at short intervals. 53 items are covered and computed for 4 income groups and on the overall basis. WPI is designed to measure the movement of prices for a set of selected items in the primary and wholesale markets. Items covered are those which could be precisely defined and offered in lots. Prices used are generally those which conform to the primary sellers realization at ex-mandi, ex-factory or at an organized wholesale level. WPI covers over 400 items. Groups of items include food, raw materials, fuel, lighting and lubricants, manufactures and building materials.

In Pakistan inflation has arisen during last few years. As per PBS monthly review of price indices and State Bank of Pakistan's (SBP) inflation monitor of June 2013 during the period 2007-08 to June 2012-13 CPI, SPI and WPI arose from base of 100 to 179.9, 191.15 and 199.21%, respectively, showing an average annual growth of 15.98%, 18.23% and 19.8% respectively. Food and nonalcoholic beverages group which constitute 34.8343% of CPI grew at annual average of 20.42% per annum. Prices of essential food items like meat, wheat, flour, chicken, milk fresh, fresh vegetables, sugar and onion registered average annual growth of 24.68%, 19.9%, 22.3%, 25%, 21%, 18.9% and 27.9% respectively. In the WPI prices of agriculture, forestry and fishery products which comprise 25.77% of WPI, recorded annual average rise of 21.8% while food products, beverage and tobacco constituting 20.07% of WPI recorded average annual increase of 19.12%.

However there was a decline in inflation trend during the years 2011-12 and 2012-13 compared to the previous three years, mainly due to administered energy prices by the government. In view of overall impact of inflation during the period has led to decline in private household savings from 12.07%of Gross Domestic Product(GDP) in 2007-08 to 6.2% of GDP in 2011-12, while Public and Private sector Gross Fixed Investment(GFI) declined from 5.4% to 3% and 15% to only7.9% respectively, during the same period. Overall GFI declined from 20.5% to 10.9% of GDP.As a result of decline in Public sector investment expenditure on health and education sectors as % of Gross National Product (GNP) declined from 0.6% to 0.3% and 2.4% to 1.8% of GNP from 2007-08 to 2011-12. Net external resources inflow declined from 8.5% of GDP to 2%. The country showed lower growth rate in the region during FY 09 to FY13 as per Pakistan Economic Survey 2012-13.

The main reasons for rise in inflation during the last few years include the twin internal and external deficits. Tax-GDP ratio of around 9% in Pakistan is currently perhaps the lowest in the region. Budgetary deficit that reached 6.4% of GDP during FY12 has led to deficit financing which has increased money supply. This has led to debt servicing of nearly Rs 1.2 trillion in the budgetary allocation for 2012-13. As per SBP, Budgetary borrowings of the government from the banking system grew by an average of 35% during the last five years. It has also reduced development outlays in both economic and social sectors. Public sector enterprises like Pakistan Steel, PIA and energy sector are huge burden on the exchequer. Black economy generated through tax evasion, monopoly, hoarding and smuggling increases the demand and price goods. Government's reliance on indirect taxation contributes to price increase as the incidence is directly passed on to the consumer irrespective to his income level. Increasing external deficit has caused depreciation of rupee thereby increasing cost of imported goods and materials leading to increase in costs. Exchange of dollar has risen from Rs 62 in 2008 to over Rs108 currently. As a result prices of imported machinery, raw materials and energy commodities have become expensive thereby contributing to rise in costs of output, fueling inflation.

Increase in remittances from overseas Pakistanis have risen to US $13.92 billion during 2012-13 which is cash flow, utilized mainly for consumption, creating demand for goods. Little efforts have been made to diversify this source into productive goods and services producing avenues. There is a need to channelize a large component of this inflow of funds into productive reproducible investments.

Current system of fixing of procurement prices of main crops does not encourage increase in yield in crops which, currently in most of the crops, is below international levels. There is a need to adopt policy framework linking price inducement with increase in yield of each crop. Electricity shortfall and rise in prices of diesel has contributed to increase in cost of farmers. There is a need to provide energy to farmers at low prices in addition to encouraging water saving irrigation technologies like drip-irrigation through incentives/subsidies. Unwieldy and unplanned expansion in cities has led to shrinkage in farm areas surrounding the cities which has reduced output and supply of vegetables and milk products from these areas increasing price level. There is a need to control this trend.

Agro-climatic conditions of Pakistan ranging from tropical to temperate, allow growth of 40 different kinds of vegetables and 21 types of fruits. The major factor limiting increase in area and production remained high investment and low return to the growers. Post-harvest losses in fruits and vegetables range from 25-40% that lead to consumer prices rise in addition to the hidden quality losses. Primary factors responsible for post-harvest produce losses are: poor pre-harvest techniques employed, outdated storage measures as well as lack of information delaying the sale of crops. In order to preserve the produce quality, different post-harvest techniques are recommended for variety of products. Investment and incentives with state support are needed for application of these technologies.

As per SBP Annual Report 2011-12, population of the country is estimated to have risen from 166.41 million in 2008 to 178.91 million in 2012 thereby creating additional aggregate demand while unemployment rate has increased from 5.2% to 6% during the same period. According to Pakistan Economic Survey 2012-13, during FY 12 and 13 the power shortage became so severe that it wiped out 2% from GDP. Energy shortages affected output thereby creating supply shortages with closures or production shortfalls. Deteriorating law and order, and energy crisis badly affected investment, which as per Pakistan Economic Survey FY 13 nose dived to 14.2% of GDP as compare to 2008 when it was hovering around 19.21%. This apart from reducing output affected growth and employment. The government needs to adopt policy measures to improve investment climate both for local and foreign investment. There is also a need to curtail twin deficit by boosting exports, curtailing import of luxury items and encouraging import substitution industries. Loss-making Public Sector Enterprises need to be made profitable by running on commercial lines or privatized.

An important issue in check on inflation is the importance assigned to it as a part of macro-economic management by the government. Some years ago there was a regular review of prices by the PM secretariat, of essential consumer items on data daily collected by FBS, in addition to review of foreign exchange position and supply and demand situation of essential items. The prices of essential items were also conveyed to provincial and district governments to enable them to adopt necessary measures against any price manipulation or unfair practices by middlemen in the mandis/markets. There were also two committees namely Prime Minister's Committee on prices and a Secretaries' Committee both headed by the Minister/Advisor for Finance. The former Committee addressed medium and long-term issues while the later addressed short-term issues. The Secretaries' Committee which met regularly, sometimes more than once in a week, would cater to anticipated shortages and take decisions for augmenting shortages by arranging imports or changing structure of tariffs. The ECC of the Cabinet discussed issues relating to price changes, production and supply issues and export and import data as well as Foreign Exchange reserve related issues. While the Economic Coordination Committee (ECC) has continued discussion on these issues while there is a National Price Monitoring Committee (NPMC) but the Secretaries’ Committee needs to be revitalized and made effective and price stabilization should be a major pillar of economic stabilization plan of the government. The NPMC should concentrate on long, and medium-term issues, the Secretaries’ Committee should work on short-term issues. The Provincial Governments as well as district administrations also need to actively monitor prices and adopt measures against hoarding and illegal profiteering.

The writer is a former Federal Secretary and had been on the faculty of National Defence University (NDU). This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Pakistan’s Economy: A Story of Resilience, Missed Opportunities and Future Prospects

Written By: Shahid Javed Burki

Most Pakistani specialists writing about the state of the country’s economy and its future prospects mostly deal with the present. Their emphasis is on the problems the country faces at this time and what needs to be done by the government to deal with them. This was also the focus of the quarterly reports issued by the International Monetary Fund when the country was subject to periodic reviews by the Washington-based agency. By and large the IMF was satisfied with the handling of the economy by the current set of managers. It was pleased that the Pakistani economy had pulled out from the plunge it took during the tenure of the government that held the reins of power from 2008 to 2013. The quarterly tranches of the program negotiated in July 2013 a couple of months after the present government took office continued to be released. The completion of the arrangement was an achievement since several previous IMF programs were canceled after the release of a few installments. There are, therefore, good reasons why policymakers in Islamabad are happy at what they have achieved in the three years they have been in power. The Fund expects that in the next few years the rate of economic growth could approach 5 per cent a year.


It is my belief that the country can do much better than implied in the analyses by the IMF. With good management and some luck it could begin to approach the rates of growth that have become common for the nations of the Asian continent. History is both a guide as well as a pointer to the future. Looking at it that way leads to the type of analysis economists call “path dependence”.

My approach in this essay will be different. Rather than focusing on the present I will read the past; by looking at the 70-year old history of the Pakistani economy, I will draw some lessons that could be applied to the future. It is my belief that the country can do much better than implied in the analyses by the IMF. With good management and some luck it could begin to approach the rates of growth that have become common for the nations of the Asian continent. History is both a guide as well as a pointer to the future. Looking at it that way leads to the type of analysis economists call “path dependence”.

What does Pakistan’s rich economic history tell us about the present as well as the future? Looking at the past we notice several attributes that have enormous relevance for the making of policy for the future. First, the country and its people have shown great resilience and fortitude in dealing with a series of problems that have hit them repeatedly. pakeconomy.jpgMost were successfully dealt with and in the way they were handled left deep impressions on the state of the economy. Second, policymakers often chose easy ways to find the resources needed to grow the economy. Third, they found it hard to break from the past when sustained progress could only be ensured by moving along different paths. Fourth, those in power often did not appreciate the opportunities available outside the country. Fifth, the policymakers did not fully factor in their country’s enviable location in thinking about the future. Sixth, not enough attention was paid to making the country’s rich human resource; an important determinant of economic growth and social betterment. And seventh, the country’s rich agricultural endowment was not used to produce rapid economic growth and increase exports. Long treaties can be written about each of these attributes; I will, however, cover them quickly and briefly.


According to estimates by the World Bank, water productivity is very low in Pakistan. The institution measures it in terms of what it calls “crop-per-drop” according to which Pakistan produces one dollar worth of output per cubic feet of water compared to two dollars for India, four for Indonesia, nine for China and 93 for Germany. Significant changes in the pattern of cropping could measurably increase productivity and increase the country’s export earnings.

There is very little recognition about the exceptionally difficult circumstances in which Pakistan was born almost 70 years ago. The country had nothing: there was no capital city, no government, no currency, no central bank, not much of a banking sector, very little industry, and great deal of poverty. On top of all this, eight million refugees, mostly destitute, arrived from India. They had to be accommodated in a population reduced to only 24 million as a consequence of the departure of six million Hindus and Sikhs who left for India. When Pakistan took its first population census in 1951, one out of every four of its citizens was born outside the country. Human history has no other example of the absorption of so many by so few. And yet this was done within a matter of months.

But there was more to come. India, Pakistan’s sibling state, made it hard for the new, predominantly Muslim state, to stand on its economic feet. New Delhi refused to release to Pakistan what were called the “sterling balances”. This was the amount of compensation London agreed to pay the Indian colony for contributing to the war effort. Pakistan’s share was left with India since Karachi, the country’s then capital, did not have a central bank to receive the amount. When Pakistan had made the needed arrangements, New Delhi under Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru refused to send the money across. It took a visit by Liaquat Ali Khan, Pakistan’s prime minister and Ghulam Muhammad, minister of finance and intervention by Lord Louis Mountbatten and Mahatama Gandhi before the amount owed to Pakistan arrived in Karachi. This story is well told by the historian Stanley Wolpert who has written extensively on various aspects of South Asia’s history.

But the Nehru administration went even beyond to hurt Pakistan. It cut off the supply of electricity to Lahore that was partly depended on a coal-fired plant that was now on the Indian side of the border. It began to reduce the flow of water into Pakistan from the canal headworks that were now in India. The final blow came in the 1949 when India declared a trade embargo to punish Pakistan for not devaluing its currency with respect to the United States dollar as was done by all other members of the British Commonwealth. “India will not pay 144 of its rupees for 100 of those of Pakistan,” said Sardar Vallahbhai Patel, the powerful home minister in the Nehru cabinet, and closed the border with its neighbor.

Thus jolted Pakistan began the search for external support to purchase the goods and commodities it needed to work its economy. Two things happened to assist the country in its time of need. The Korean War that began in 1950 and lasted for three years created a large demand for some of the commodities Pakistan had in surplus: jute, cotton and leather exports shot up. Additional export earnings could be spent on the critically needed imports. The second development was the realization by the United States that it needed to work with other nations to stop the advance of Communism into Europe and Asia. The Korean War stopped the Communist advance at the 38th Parallel that became the border between North and South Korea. The war was won by the United States with the help of a dozen and half members of the United Nations. With that as its experience, Washington launched other multilateral defense agreements.

Pakistan became an active member of two of the three organizations sponsored by the United States – the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) and the Southeast Treaty Organization (SEATO). Thus allied with the United States, Pakistan received large doses of economic and military assistance. Much of the economic miracle of President Ayub Khan when the gross domestic product increased at the rate of almost 7 per cent a year was supported by American aid. The rate at which the Pakistani economy expanded was twice as that of neighboring India. Two other periods of high rates of growth followed in the 1980s and 2000s and both were aided by foreign capital flows. A pattern had been set: for Pakistan to grow its economy it needed external capital flows. Pakistan has found it difficult to reduce the dependency on foreign aid. Economic performance depended on the content of foreign policy. This twinning had enormous consequences for the way Pakistan developed. A fundamental reform of fiscal management is needed to have Pakistan rely more on its own resources for developing the economy.

Development thinking in Pakistan has never recognized its enviable location. The country sits on top of India and also is a link between China and the energy rich countries of the Middle East. To the north are five landlocked countries of Central Asia with large land masses, small populations and enormous mineral wealth. Peter Frankopan, in his work on this region, paints well its importance. “It is a region characterized in western minds as backward, despotic and violent… For all their apparent ‘otherness,’ however, these lands have always been of pivotal importance in global history in one way or another, linking east and west, serving as melting-pot where ideas, customs, and languages have jostled with each other from antiquity to today. And today the Silk Roads are rising again – unobserved and overlooked by many.” The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor is a part of this adventure.

Connecting the country to these asset-rich places was never thought of as one of the major determinants of economic growth. This has happened only very recently with the last year launch of the Beijing funded CPEC. Recently there has been much talk about Pakistan’s isolation. It is correct to worry about this but breaking out of it should mean more than courting the West. It should include a rethink of relations with Central Asia. A very rough calculation suggests that properly executed over a decade, the CPEC could add a percentage and a half points to the country’s GDP growth by 2025.

Pakistan’s demographic problems are well known as is the failure of the past governments to commit much to developing the large and growing human resource. The population is poorly educated and poorly trained. Since it is very young – half of Pakistan’s almost 200 million people are below the age of 23 – turning public attention to them would create a potentially rich human asset. My rough estimates indicate that in the megacities of Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad-Rawalpindi some 75 percent of the population is below the age of 23. This is a highly restive segment of the population that needs to be catered for with some urgency. To use a cliché: Pakistan needs to develop the human resource on a war footing, with full engagement by both the public and private sector.

Agriculture is another ignored asset in the country. Pakistan has the largest contiguous irrigated area in the world. It was initially developed by the British in the late 19th and early 20th centuries to provide food grains to the food short areas in the east of its Indian colony. That objective was obtained and once the virgin lands of the Punjab and Sindh were in full production, famines in East India were largely controlled. But Pakistan has remained stuck in this history. It has not used its water resources to full advantage. According to estimates by the World Bank, water productivity is very low in Pakistan. The institution measures it in terms of what it calls “crop-per-drop” according to which Pakistan produces one dollar worth of output per cubic feet of water compared to two dollars for India, four for Indonesia, nine for China and 93 for Germany. Significant changes in the pattern of cropping could measurably increase productivity and increase the country’s export earnings.

These then are some of the features that should figure in the badly needed growth strategy. This should be based on self-reliance; use of the country’s location to better interact with the world outside; improve the quality of the human resource so that the youth can feed into the development and modernization of the economy, and tap the vast potential of the sector of agriculture sector. There is no reason why such a strategy will not help Pakistan to achieve the “miracle rates of growth” attained by so many countries in Asia. But this will happen only with good economic governance.


The writer is a former caretaker finance minister and served as vice-president at the World Bank.

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1 Peter Frankopan, The Silk Roads: A New History of the World (London, Bloomsbury, 2015) pp. 511-513.

Global Trade Changing Realities!

Written By: Dr. Kamal Monnoo

Pakistan's economic leadership and, especially, the Ministry of Commerce needs to realize that modern day global trade is changing course. Gone are the days when countries single mindedly were focused on expansion of trade or had blind faith to slip into the prescribed World Trade Organization (WTO) straight jacket to become a part of the global trade order.


Both, the 2008 Financial Crisis and a Noodle Bowl effect of Free Trade Agreements (FTAs), Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs), Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs), etc. have slowly but surely undermined the once unquestioned wisdom of multilateral functioning. Modern day thinking being that while expanding global markets is a worthy goal, history offers lessons that only fair and 'constructive trade' is what nations should be seeking. 'Constructive' referring to a realization that only such trade is welcome which tangibly adds value to the home economy and ensures a gradual but clear development of its core national industries. Our trade equations with India and China thus far may tell a different story!

This mindset will be critical when formulating Pakistan’s trade vision, strategy and related policies going forward. Not only because we need to be mindful of our economic interests vis-à-vis regional and global trade, but also because there is this new found realization in almost every country or within a common market bloc that while it will welcome enhanced cum new economic linkages the resulting development from the same must take place at home (meaning within its respective economy). For example, President Ashraf Ghani of Afghanistan made this very clear to the visiting Pakistani business delegations in recent months that while his government will fully support Pakistani entrepreneurs to tap business opportunities in Afghanistan the resultant activities must ensure development and employment generation in Afghanistan and that these activities should fall in the purview of his country’s formal/documented economy.


And this sentiment is in fact gripping all (developing and developed) economies alike. The champions of out-sourcing and of trade without barriers, US and Japan, are these days busy doing the very opposite by encouraging their core industries to relocate back home. In the US there is a distinct revival in textile manufacturing, which is overtly facilitated by the US Government and in Japan owing to a combination of controlled labour costs, a devalued Yen and conscious policies unleashed by the Japanese Government to boost home manufacturing, leading Japanese firms like Panasonic, Sharp, TDK, Canon, Daikin and MUJI Corporations are busy relocating significant parts of their overseas production back to Japan.

In general, countries looking for increased market share in the total global trade are pushing to expand their manufacturing innovation hubs, invest in federally funded research centres that disseminate advanced manufacturing knowledge and willing to provide subsidies that are expressly contingent on exportation. In other words: The Great Trade Game is on! And in this game, new mega regional and cross-region trade deals are under negotiation and fresh trading blocs are evolving. The original Asian tigers (ASEAN) are re-writing trade facilitation laws to give a renewed impetus to their already huge quantum of intra-regional trade, while the new tigers, India and China, are endeavouring to not only further enhance bilateral trade but to also collectively form a Regional Economic Partnership bloc that places trade on the forefront and puts political disputes on the backburner.


To counter China’s influence and pivot itself as the dominant power in the region, the U.S. just concluded a far-from-perfect deal on (October 6, 2015) the Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP) with selected Asia Pacific and South American countries: Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, Vietnam, and the United States. Still, for Mr. Obama the accord could be a legacy-making achievement, drawing together countries representing two-fifths of the global economy, from Canada and Chile to Japan and Australia, into a web of common rules governing trans-Pacific commerce. It is the capstone both of his economic agenda to expand exports and of his foreign policy “rebalance” toward closer relations with fast-growing Eastern Asia, after years of American preoccupation with the Middle East and North Africa. Also, as per the increasing trend these days in global trade, Mr. Obama’s defence to TPP conclusion tended to be more political in nature than economic: in a post-deal statement he said: “When more than 95% of our potential customers live outside our borders, we can’t let countries like China write the rules of the global economy.


We should write those rules, opening new markets to American products while setting high standards for protecting workers and preserving our environment.” This argument that the Pacific pact would be a bulwark against China’s power and a standard-setter for global commerce will incidentally also be central to the president’s hard sell ahead to Congress.

As these new trading blocs emerge, Pakistan’s competition stiffens further. For example, as the TPP becomes a reality Vietnam will be able to export footwear and textiles duty free to the U.S. and make inroads into the present U.S. market share of Pakistan in these items. To counter this Pakistan must also strive to optimize its trade potential both regionally and with countries where it feels it has natural economic linkages, but they have largely remained untapped owing to various constraints, e.g. access to Central Asian Republics leading all the way to Caucasus and Eurasia. And in doing so, we need to recognize that just like in South Asia, resolving the log-jam between Pakistan and India holds the key to SAARC's success, likewise, successfully ironing out bottlenecks in the Pak-Afghan relationship will ultimately be the determining factor of the success rate of our efforts in Central Asia and beyond.

Also, when re-strategizing our trade vision amidst changing global trading realities, it will be good to “always” be mindful of the fact that a focus on the western side of our borders by no means signifies an 'either/or' approach to our eastern side. Trade and linkage on the western side will entail a significantly different kind of push where market penetration will be slow and returns even slower. The Government of Pakistan will have to invest funds and resources and be prepared for the long haul because regardless of who thus far has successfully penetrated these markets, their models of engagement have invariably been identical:

- Government to Government (mainly raw materials).
- Big Businesses backed by respective governments to local CAR business houses in-turn connected into the CAR government/ruling elite.

- Private-Public Partnerships facilitated through government to government patronage.

Finally, when expanding economic linkages with our western frontiers and beyond, the Government of Pakistan should remain clear that it is not primarily exports that it seeks, but instead the real gains will accrue from sustainable reductions in its import bill through substitution of cheaper energy inputs and by linking us into alternate solutions to our prevalent energy sector woes. And this is precisely what one refers to as the modern day evolving trading culture: finding specific advantages and not just indulging in trade for the sake of trade.


The strength of countries on our western side lies in their wealth of natural resources like gas, coal, high-grade carbons and hydrocarbons, surplus electricity generation capacity, oil, uranium and gold and this is precisely where business will take place. The intangible benefits will accrue from promoting a soft image of Pakistan keen to help them in the fields of education, exchange-able training programmes in defence and security, setting-up of financial systems, stock exchange linkages, joint agriculture endeavours mainly in cotton, corn, animal breeding and fruits, healthcare, and last but not the least, in tourism and cultural activities.

The writer is an entrepreneur and economic analyst. He can be reached at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Finally, when expanding economic linkages with our western frontiers and beyond, the Government of Pakistan should remain clear that it is not primarily exports that it seeks, but instead the real gains will accrue from sustainable reductions in its import bill through substitution of cheaper energy inputs and by linking us into alternate solutions to our prevalent energy sector woes. And this is precisely what one refers to as the modern day evolving trading culture: finding specific advantages and not just indulging in trade for the sake of trade.



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